Exam 2: Anterior and Medial Thigh

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brau2308
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159365
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Exam 2: Anterior and Medial Thigh
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2012-06-22 17:57:37
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anatomy thigh
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review of lecture 6/19 onthe anerior and medial thigh
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  1. What are the superficial structures of the anterior and medial thigh?
    • great saphenous v.
    • lymph nodes
    • cutaneous nn.  
  2. What is the longest vein in the body?
    great saphenous v.
  3. Where does the great saphenous v. begin?
    at the medial side of the dorsal venous arch of the foot
  4. Where does the great saphenous v. ascend?
    on medial side of leg and thigh
  5. Where does the great saphenous v. terminate?
    in femora vein on anterior thigh
  6. What does the great saphenous v. pass through before terminating into the femoral vein?
    saphenous opening (hiatus) in deep fascia
  7. Where are the named tributaries of the great saphenous v.?
    proximl region of thigh
  8. What do the named tributaries of the great saphenous v. correspond to?
    branches of femoral artery
  9. What are the named tributaries of the great saphenous v.?
    • external pudendal v.
    • supeficial circmflex iliac v.
    • superficial epigastric v.
  10. Where does the external pudendal v. drain blood from?
    • penis and scrotum in males
    • vulva (ext. female genitalia) and lower vagina in females
    • lower half ofanal canal
  11. What does pudendal mean?
    to be ashamed
  12. Where does the superficial circumflex iliac v. drain blood from?
    lateral thigh
  13. Where does the superficial epigastric v. drain blood from?
    anterior abdominal wall inferior to umbilicus
  14. Where are lymph nodes in the lower extremity located?
    • behind the knee
    • in inguinal region (groin) 
  15. What is the space located behind the knee known as?
    popliteal fossa
  16. What is the name of the lymph nodes located in the popliteal fossa?
    popliteal nodes
  17. How many groups are the superficial inguinal nodes divided into?
    2
  18. What are the two groups of the superficial inguinal nodes?
    • superior- horizontal group
    • inferior- vertical group 
  19. Where do the superior nodes of the superficial inguinal nodes drain lymph from?
    • penis and scrotum in males
    • vulva and lower vagina in females
    • lower half of anal canal
    • lateral thigh
    • anterior abdominal wall inferior to umbilicus    
  20. The superior nodes of the superficial inguinal nodes drain lymph from the same area as which vessels?
    the 3 tributaries of the great saphenous v.
  21. Where do the inferior nodes ofthe superficialinguinal nodes drain lymph from?
    superficial tissues of the lower extremity
  22. What are the cutaneous nerves supplying te anterior and medial thigh?
    • lateral, intermediate, and medial femoral cutaneous nerves
    • ilioinginal nerve
    • femoral branch of genitofemoral nerve
    • obturator nerve   
  23. Where are the lateral, intermediate, and medial femoral cutaneous nerves found?
    on the thigh
  24. Which nerve supplies the lateral, intermediate, and medial femoral cutaneous nerves?
    femoral N.
  25. What does the ilioinguinal nerve supply?
    sensory to scrotum or labium majora
  26. What does the obturator nerve supply?
    skin of medial thigh
  27. What is the deep fascia of the thigh known as?
    fascia lata
  28. Fascia Lata
    • thin, dense layer of connective tissue surrounding the two thighs like a pair of pantyhose
    • surrounds all surfaces of skeletal mucles 
  29. By surrounding all surfaces of skeletal muscles, what does the fascia lata produce?
    intermuscular septa
  30. What do the intermuscular septa divide the thigh into?
    three muscular compartments
  31. What are the names of the three muscular compartments of the thigh?
    medial, anterior, and posterior
  32. How are most of the fibers of the fascia lata oriented?
    horizontally
  33. Where is part of the fascia lata oriented vertically?
    on the lateral surfaces of the thigh and proximal tibia
  34. What is the part of the fascia lata called where it is oriented vertically?
    iliotibial tract
  35. What contribute to the formation of the iliotibial tract?
    aponeuroses of the gluteus maximus and tensor fascia lata muscles
  36. What is contained in the anterior compartment of the thigh?
    • quadriceps femoris
    • sartorius muscle
    • femoral artery and its branches
    • femoral vein with its tributries
    • deep inguinal lymph nodes
  37. Which muscles make up the quadriceps femoris m.?
    • rectus femoris
    • vastus lateralis
    • vastus intermedius
    • vastus medialis   
  38. What purpose does he inguinal ligament serve?
    boundary between thigh and abdomen
  39. Which of the quadriceps femoris mm. can flex the thigh?
    rectus femoris
  40. Why is the rectus femoris m. the only quadriceps mm. to flex the thigh?
    crosses two joints (hip and knee joints)
  41. Which joints does the sartorius cross?
    hip and knee joints
  42. What is the femoral sheath a continuation of?
    the extraperitoneal areolar tissue that surrounds the external iliac vessels in the abdomen
  43. What does the femoral sheath surround?
    femoral vessels and some lyphatic vessels
  44. Is the femoral sheath deep or superficial to the fascia lata?
    deep
  45. What is the shape of the femoral sheath?
    funnel-shaped
  46. How many compartments is the femoral sheath divided into?
    3
  47. What are the names of the compartments of the femoral sheath?
    lateral, middle, and medial
  48. What is another name for the patellar tendon?
    quadriceps tendon
  49. Where does the patellar tendon insert?
    on tibial tuberoity
  50. What is contained in the lateral compartment of the femoral sheath?
    femoral artery
  51. What is contained in the middle compartment of the femoral sheath?
    femoral vein
  52. What is another name for the medial compartment of the femoral sheath?
    femoral canal
  53. What is contained in the medial compartment of the femoral sheath?
    lymph nodes and lymphatic vessels
  54. What is the femoral canal continuous with?
    abdominal cavity
  55. What connects the femoral canal with the abdominal cavity?
    femoral ring (superior opening of femoral canal)
  56. What is a femoral hernia?
    if abdominal viscera such as small intestine, protrudes through the femoral ring into the femoral canal
  57. Are men or women more likely to get a femoral hernia?
    three times more frequent in women
  58. Why are femoral hernias more common in women?
    sexual differences in osteology of os coxae (hip bones)
  59. What is the femoral artery a continuation of?
    external iliac artery
  60. Where does the femoral artery enter the thigh?
    beneath inguinal ligament, midway between anteror superior iliac spine and pubic tubercle
  61. How many named branches of the femoral artery are there?
    4
  62. hat are the 4 named branches of the femoral artery?
    • external pudendal
    • superficial circumflex iliac
    • superficial epigastric
    • profunda femoris   
  63. What structures does the external pudendal artery supply?
    • penis and scrotum in males
    • vulva and lower vagina in females
    • lower half of anal canal   
  64. What structures does the superficial circumflex iliac artery supply?
    lateral thigh
  65. What structures does the superficial epigastric artery supply?
    anterior abdominal wall inferior to umbilicus
  66. What are the branches of the profunda femoris artery?
    • lateral circumflex branch
    • medial circumflex branch
    • 4 perforating arteries   
  67. What structures do the lateral and medial circumflex branches of the profunda femoris artery supply?
    hip joint and gluteal region
  68. What structures do the 4 perforating arteries of the profunda femoris artery supply?
    posterior and medial compartments of thigh
  69. Which tributaries of the great saphenous v. correspond to branches of the femoral artery?
    • superficial circumflex iliac
    • superficial epigastric
    • external pudendal veins  
  70. What do tributaries ofthe femoral v. drain blood from?
    muscles in anterior and medial compartments of thigh and profunda femoris vein
  71. How many deep femoral nodes are contained within the fascia lata and where are they?
    • 1-3
    • located medial to femoral vein
  72. Are the deep femoral nodes located in the femoral canal?
    either within femoral canal or just inferior to it
  73. Where do the deep femoral nodes of the thigh drain lymph from?
    • deep structures oflower extremity
    • penile urethra
    • glans penis
    • glans clitoris
  74. Where do the deep femoral nodes drain lymph into?
    external iliac nodes
  75. Where are the external iliac nodes?
    adjacent to external iliac artery
  76. Femoral Triangle
    Base:
    inguinal ligament
  77. Femoral Triangle
    Lateral side: 
    medial border of sartorius m.
  78. Femoral Triangle
    Medial side: 
    latera border of adductor longus m.
  79. Femoral Triangle
    Contents:
    • femoral artery and its branches
    • femoral vein and its tributaries
    • femoral nerve
    • lymphatics
    • femoral sheath --and its contents     
  80. Which muscles should you think of when thinking of the medial compartment of the thigh?
    adductors
  81. How many muscles are in the medial compartment of the thigh?
    6
  82. Where do the 6 muscles of the medial compartment originate?
    anterior aspect of os coxae and obturator membrane
  83. Where are the insertions of the muscles of the medial compartment?
    femur ad tibia
  84. What innervates the muscles of the medial compartment of the thigh?
    obturator nerve
  85. What muscle of the medial compartment of the thigh has a different innervation?
    pectineus --femoral
  86. Which arteries supply the medial compartment of the thigh?
    obturator and profunda femoris aa.
  87. What are the functions of the muscles of the medial compartment of the thigh?
    adduct and medially rotate hip joint
  88. Adductor hiatus
    openning in tendon of adductor magnus
  89. Which is the largest of the muscles in the medial compartment of the thigh?
    adductor magnus
  90. Which portion of the adductor magnus has the same embryonic origin as the hamstring muscles?
    the portion originating from the ischial tuberosity
  91. The portion of the adductor magnus originating from the ischial tuberosity is innervated by:
    tibial nerve
  92. What is the adductor canal?
    3D space where the apex of the femoral triangle leads to a narrow, triangular-shaped intermuscular tunnel
  93. Approximately how long is the adductor canal?
    6" long
  94. How many walls of the adductor canal are there?
    3
  95. What are the three walls of the adductor canal?
    • lateral
    • medial
    • roof   
  96. Adductor canal
    lateral wall: 
    vastus medialis
  97. Adductor canal
    medial wall: 
    adductor longus and adductor magnus
  98. Adductor canal
    roof:
    sartorius
  99. Adductor canal
    contents:
    • femoral a. and v.
    • saphenous a.
    • saphenous n.
    • nerve to vastus medialis    
  100. Where is the saphenous nerve?
    medial side of leg (cutaneous innervation)
  101. Where do the saphenous artery and nerve become cutaneous?
    as they pass between gracilis and sartorius t the medial side of the knee
  102. The saphenous nerve accompanies which vein?
    great saphenous vein
  103. Where do the saphenous nerve and great saphenous vein terminate?
    medial side of foot
  104. What does the femoral artery continue as?
    popliteal artery
  105. When does the femoral artery become the popliteal artery?
    after passing through the adductor hiatus at inferior limit of adductor canal
  106. Where is the popliteal artery located?
    in popliteal fossa
  107. If a muscle inserts on the linea aspera of the femur, what action does it produce?
    medial rotation of thigh (along with adduction, usually)
  108. What is the order of the contents of the femoral triangle from lateral to medial?
    • Nerve
    • Artery
    • Vein
    • Lymph  

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