BIOL 100 Exam 3

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BIOL 100 Exam 3
2012-06-22 01:17:11
DNA Biotechnology Cancer Transcriptions Translations Mutations Stem Cells

CH 21, 4, 5, 6, 7
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  1. All DNA (structure) is the same in 3 ways
    1. Double stranded helix

    • 2. 2 threads wound together
    • --- Held together by H-bonds between bases    

    3. Made up of Nucleotides  
  2. DNA nucleotides are made up of 3 things
    1.  Sugar (dioxyribose)

    2.  Bases (G, T, C, A)

    3.  Phosphate
  3. process that requires enzymes to make an exact copy of DNA
  4. 2 Steps of Replication require enzymes to ...
    Step 1: unwind the DNA

    Step 2: Make new strand
  5. reason for Replication
    so that each new cell has genetic material
  6. Step 1 of Replication
    enzymes break H-bonds between bases to unwind the DNA
  7. Step 2 of Replication
    DNA polymerase (enzyme) matches up bases to the template strand
  8. Average human has _#_ base pairs
    3 Billion
  9. Mistakes during ___ lead to ___ if not repaired.
    Replication / Mutations
  10. ___ used as a "book of recipies": tells the cell what to do.
  11. Some ___ is used as a "template" to make proteins
  12. the creation of an RNA molecule from a DNA template
  13. RNA nucleotides are made up of 3 things
    1. Sugar (Ribose)

    2. Bases (A, G, C, U)

    3. Phosphate    
  14. Types of RNA (3)
    mRNA - messenger RNA

    tRNA - transfer RNA

    rRNA - ribosomal RNA
  15. 4 Steps of Transctription
    1.  RNA Polymerase binds to promoter

    2.  RNA Pol. moves along strand matching up bases

    3. RNA Pol. reaches "STOP sign"

    4.  RNA released for modification
  16. RNA Modification
    mRNA is modified before leaving the nucleus

    introns and exons "sorted"    
  17. intervening sequences (parts that are "cut out" during RNA modification)

    Regions that DON'T code for a protein  
  18. Expressed sequences ("kept" during RNA modification)

    Regions that code for a protein message  
  19. "Translates" mRNA message into a protein
  20. Every three bases (aka ___) code for a single ____
    codon / amino acid
  21. _ _ _ is ALWAYS the 1st Codon, which codes for the amino acid ___
    AUG / methionine
  22. 3 "STOP" codons are . . .
  23. Brings the appropriate amino acid to the site of translation
    Translation: tRNA
  24. tRNA uses its ___ to determine the site of translation
    ANTIcodon: opposite codon
  25. Brings tRNA anticodon close to mRNA codon and Binds amino acids together
    Translation: Ribosomes
  26. Steps of Translation
    1. Initiation

    2. Elongation

    3. Termination     
  27. Initiation (1st step of Translation)
    Small ribosomal unit binds

    Reads until it finds a start codon (AUG)

    tRNA brings 1st amino acid (always MET)

    Large ribosomal subunit binds   
  28. Elongation (2nd Step of Translation)
    Another tRNA brings another amino acid

    Ribosome moves along matching tRNA with codons of mRNA

    Amino acids attach to one another IN Sequence

    Protein is formed      
  29. Termination (3rd Step of Translation)
    Ribosome encounters a STOP codon

    Causes the process of translationto stop 
  30. How to make a Protein
    DNA - mRNA - Amino Acid - Protein

    Transcription - Translation

  31. Mutations can be caused by ___ and ___
    changes in DNA sequences

    point mutation  
  32. In mutations:

    change in a nucleotide (base)

    CAN CAUSE a number of difficulties  
    point mutation
  33. Changes in DNA sequences are caused by ___
    faulty replication and environmental factors
  34. No change in protein structure

    i.e. UCU and UCC both code for the same amino acid 
  35. may change the amino acid, but the amino acid change doesn't affect the protein's function
    no change in protein function
  36. New protein structure doesn't work as well

    i.e. Sickle cell anemia 

    CTC to CAC on DNA molecule = mRNA of GAG to GUG   
    alteration of protein function
  37. point mutation could produce a STOP codon in the wrong place
    destruction of protein function
  38. addition or removal of 1 or 2 nucleotides

    all codons change after ___ or ___ 
    Insertion or Deletion
  39. Cell in your body that has potential to become any cell in your body
    Stem Cells
  40. Most cells can only become other cells of the ___ type; and they come in handy with many types of ___
    same / diseases
  41. Sources of stem cells
    Adult stem cells

    Umbilical cord stem cells

    Embryonic stem cells

    Somatic cell nuclear transplant     
  42. (stem cells) Harder to locate (very localized)

    Unipotent - not very versitle

    i.e. bone marrow, skin, brain    
    Adult Stem Cells
  43. (Stem Cells)

    Multipotent - can specialize to be many types of cells 
    Umbilical Cord Stem Cells
  44. (stem cells) - type currently used in research

    unused embryos (6-7 days-old)

    20-30 cells in the inner cell mass 

    -reprogrammed adult cells

    Pluripotent - Can become almost any cell
    Embryonic Stem Cells
  45. Reproductive cloning (e-nucleated egg + nucleus of a stem cell)


    Grow faster

    Age prematurely

    totipotent - specialize to be any cell type
    Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer
  46. Same genetic make-up as patient

    replace faulty cells

    limited supply of human eggs for research   
    Theraputic cloning
  47. Options for introducing stem cells to replace tissue (2)
    Transplant stem cell nucleus

    Fuse stem cell and non-stem cell 
  48. The goal of ___ is to insert functional genes into cells that have a faulty gene
    Gene Therapy
  49. Method of gene therapy
    Viruses can act as a delivery system

    Liposomes (lipid balls with genes in the middle)

    i.e. SCID treatment in Ashanthi - replaced white blood cells  
  50. Identification of repeating sequences of DNA

    Number of copies of those repeating sequences are heritable (can be inherited) 
    DNA Fingerprinting
  51. Process of DNA Fingerprinting (3 steps)
    PCR of DNA sample

    DNA cut with enzymes (they cut in the same place every time)

    DNA fragments produced are a fingerprint for an individual
  52. Uncontrolled cell division (Mitosis) - only takes 1 cell

    - Our own cells

    - Forms tumors     
  53. (Cancer)

    Contained within the site

    only harmful if they put pressure on neighboring tissues   
  54. (Cancer)

    Can invade (grow into) neighboring tissues

    spread via matastasis   
  55. Causes of cancer
    controlling DNA damage

    Mutations of:

    1) Tumor-Supressor genes

    2) Proto-Oncogenes     
  56. "Breaks" for cell division

    - detect damaged DNA

    - repair damage

    - Supress cell division

    - p53        
    Tumor-Supressor genes
  57. - cell division "accellerator"

    - stimulate cell division

    - become "Oncogenes" when mutated    
  58. Cancer Treatments (6)




    Inhibit Blood Vessel Formation

    Gene Therapy   
  59. (Cancer treatment)

    Excise ("cut out") the tumor 
  60. Cancer treatmant that damages DNA
  61. Cancer treatment where chemicals interfere with cell division
  62. Cancer treatment where natural "killer cells" are boosted
  63. (Cancer treatment)

    Because cancer cells need blood, too, we can ___    
    inhibit blood vessel formation
  64. Cancer treatment where there is an insertion of normal genes
    Gene Therapy
  65. Group of cells that work together for a common function
  66. 4 main types of Tissues



  67. Type of tissue that coats and lines
    Epithelial Tissue
  68. Simple epithelial tissue has ___ layer(s)
  69. Stratified epithelial tissue has ___ layer(s)
    more than 1
  70. irregular shaped cells that are small and flat (like shingles)
    Squamous epithelial tissue
  71. square cells
    Cuboidal Epithelial tissue
  72. column shaped cells
    Columnar epithelial tissue
  73. Type of epithelial tissue found lining blood vessels (lungs/heart chambers)
    Simple Squamous
  74. type of epithelial tissue found in the skin and esophogus
    stratified squamous
  75. Type of Epithelial Tissue found in kidneys
    simple cuboidal
  76. Type of Epithelial Tissue found in glands (sweat)
    stratified cuboidal
  77. Type of Epithelial Tissue found in intestines
    simple columnar
  78. Type of Epithelial Tissue found in the urinary tract (esp. in male urethra)
    Stratified Columnar
  79. (6) Types of Epithelial Tissue
    • Simple Squamous
    • -------- Cuboidal
    • -------- Columnar  

    • Stratified Squamous
    • ----------- Cuboidal
    • ----------- Columnar   
  80. "Body Glue" Tissue that connects and supports

    Most widely distributed tissue

    All types of this tissue contain cells and a matrix
    Connective Tissue
  81. Connective tissue matrix is made up of ___ , ___ , and ___
    Ground Substance

    Protein Fibers

    Cell Secretions
  82. 3 forms of the Ground Substance of a matrix in connective tissue


  83. fiber cells - used to build "baby fibers"
  84. (3) Protein fibers produced by fibroblasts


    reticular fibers (spongy)
  85. (3) Types of Connective Tissue
    CT Proper


    Bone & Blood 
  86. (3) Types of Connective Tissue Proper
    Areolar CT

    Adipose Tissue

    Dense CT   
  87. Connective Tissue Proper found under skin, between muscles

    "Universal packing material" 
    Areolar CT
  88. Connective Tissue Proper found around organs (eyes / kidneys)

    energy storage, insulation 
    Adipose Tissue
  89. Connective Tissue Proper found connecting bones and muscle

    (Ligaments and Tendons)  
    Dense CT
  90. Connects bone to bone
  91. Connects muscle to bone
  92. Cartilage cells
  93. (3) Types of Cartilage


  94. Joint Cartilage - Lines bones and found in the trachea
    Hyaline Cartilage
  95. More flexible cartilage with lots of elastic fibers (ears)
    Elastic Cartilage
  96. Cartilage disks between vertabrae (Spine)

    absorbs a lot of shock
  97. Bone cells
  98. Type of connective tissue with a hardened matrix

    Support, storage, movement

    (2) Types
    Bone Connective Tissue
  99. The 2 types of bone connective tissue 
    compact and spongy
  100. type of connective tissue with a liquid maatrix

    transporter of Oxygen, CO2, Nutrients, etc . . .
    Blood connective tissue
  101. Contracting Cells
    Muscle Tissues
  102. Type of Muscle Tissue that is:

    - attached to bone
    - voluntary
    - lots of nuclei     
    Skeletal Muscle
  103. Type of muscle tissue:

    - heart muscle
    - branched
    - 1 nucleus
    - INvoluntary
    - gap junctions     
    Cardiac Muscle
  104. Type of muscle tissue:

    - spindle shaped
    - INvoluntary
    - propells
    - blood vessels, small intestine, uterus
    - Lack Striation  
    Smooth Muscle
  105. type of muscle that makes up the nervous system

    Nerves, Brain, Spinal Cord

    - (2) cell types   
    Nervous Muscle
  106. 2 Cell Types found in Nervous Muscle
    Neurons (transmitter)

    and Neuroglia (assistant transmitter - makes insulation that goes around neurons)
  107. assistant transmitter in the Nervous System - makes insulation that goes around neurons
  108. 3 Ways to Hold Cells together
    Tight Junctions

    Adhesion Junctions

    Gap Junctions   
  109. Junction that doesn't allow things to move in between the cells (keeps things IN - i.e. stomach holds in stomach acid)
    Tight Junctions
  110. Type of junction that has elasticity and holds cells together (spot welds)
    Adhesion Junctions
  111. Junction that allows movement of cytoplasm between cells

    anywhere there are electro impulses, CONTRACTION

    Gap Junction
  112. Integumentary System
  113. Functions of Skin (5)

    water retention

    temperature regulation

    excretion of wastes

    detection of external stimuli       
  114. Skin Layers


  115. top layer of skin

    lots of layers of irregular shaped cells (stratified squamous)

  116. waterproof
  117. (skin) "where all the 'stuff'' is"

    thicker than epidermis


    dense connective tissue (CT Proper)     

    weakening of this layer = wrinkles
  118. NOT considered part of the skin

    deep pressure receptors 

    adipose tissue (liposuction) 
  119. Factors of skin pigmentation (5)

    blood flow



  120. Melanin produced by ___
  121. Melanocyte colors

  122. # of melanocytes stays the same - Size changes!

      ___ melanocytes = Darker skin

    ___ melanocytes = Lighter skin 
    Larger granules / Smaller granules
  123. Oxygen carrying protein in red blood cells
  124. ___ and ___ of blood flow will effect skin pigment
    amount / oxygen level
  125. Skin Accessory Structures


  126. Modified skin cells that protect, insulate, and are sensory
  127. Modified skin cells that protect and are sensory
  128. Types of glands in skin
    Oil and Sweat
  129. Type of gland that helps to maintain Homeostasis
    sweat glands
  130. Body's maintinance of internal conditions
  131. Homeostasis maintained through ___ feedback
  132. Type of feedback that "keeps going" - i.e. labor and blood clotting
  133. Functions of the Skeleton




    Blood cell production       
  134. Bone stores ___, ___ and ___
    calcium, phosphorus, and fats
  135. ___ and ___ are needed for movement
    bone and muscle
  136. Production of bone
    Osteocytes make osteons

    Osteons make bone  
  137. stores the minerals and fats in bone
  138. structural unit of bone
  139. Osteocytes are arranged in ___ rings
  140. Bone matrix composed of ___ built on ___
    mineral / cartilage
  141. Normal bone structures (2)
    Compact and Spongy
  142. Outer layer of bone

    Strongest layer

    covered with periosteum   
    Compact bone
  143. Membrane that covers Compact bone
  144. Internal lattice

    Braces bones

    filled with marrow   
    Spongy Bone
  145. Blood Cell production
    Red Bone Marrow
  146. Stores fat in bone
    Yellow bone marrow
  147. In bone, End of ___ is remodeled every _ to _ months
    Femur / 5-6
  148. Remodeling of bones is determined by the amount of ___ on the bone
  149. There are changes in the ___ of bones throughout life
  150. Cells that destroy bone
  151. Cells that produce and build bone