GEO

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Author:
miichellee
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159405
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GEO
Updated:
2012-06-19 23:03:21
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GEO
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GEO EXAM
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  1. Concentrated Population Density
    Occurs where other natural resources are.>Economic opportunities draw people to settle in
  2. Dispersed Population Density
    typically areas of agriculture because people tend to live on farms that spread over regions
  3. Emigrant
    Someone who leaves a region to settle in another
  4. Emigration Rate
    Number of people per 1000 population in one year who emigrate
  5. Immigrant
    Someone who moves to a new country to settle
  6. Basic Industry
    sells products outside the community, bringing money into the community(agriculture)
  7. Non- basic Industry
    sells products within the community. does not bring money into the community (Hotel, Gym)
  8. Primary Industry
    Industry that deals with the production of primary products such as minerals that are mine or quarried, or an agricultural product that is harvested in its raw state. (E.g. fishing, mining, logging)
  9. Secondary Industry
    Industry dealing with manufacturing or construction (E.g. Chemical Plant, Construction worker)
  10. Tertiary Industry
    Industry that provides service rather than goods. (E.g. banking, entertainment)
  11. Quaternary Industry
    Highly specialized (and usually expensive) knowledge- based technological and support services (E.g. research and development, information technology.
  12.      Latitude
    Distance North or South of the equator, measured in degrees.
  13. Longitude
    Distance East to West of the Prime Meridian, measure in degrees. 
  14. Mulitcultural Society
    Characteristic of a society that is made up of many different cultures. (E.g. Canada is made up 97% immigrants or descendants of immigrants)
  15. Multiplier Effect
    Total effect on the economy caused by an expansion or contraction in one part of it. For example, a new mine employing 300 peo0pple may cause 900 other jobs to develop in manufacturing and services. 
  16. Natural Increase: 
    Difference between the birth rate and death rate of a country (birth rate – death rate = natural Increase)
  17. Precambrian Era
    Period of geological time from the beginning of the earth to 570 million years ago; first era in the Earth’s geological history. Longest Era
  18. Protectionism: 
    A national policy of trying to protect certain industries by having high tariffs. Opposite of free trade.
  19. Pull Factors: 
    Factors that draw immigrants to a country. (E.g. job opportunities, freedom of speech or religion, lower taxes)
  20. Push Factors: 
    Factors that cause people to emigrate from their country. (E.g. war, no human rights, terrorism)
  21. Refugee
    Person who migrates to another country out of fear of cruel or inhumane treatment in their own country 
  22. Services
    tertiary industries that provide functions need by other industries and society in general. Services include retailing, education, healthcare, communication, and government. The service sector is the largest part of Canada’s Economy.
  23. Tariffs
    tax charged on goods imported into a country to protect local industries from foreign competition
  24. Why are Automobile important?
    Important for movement of people and goods from one place to another.
  25. automobile Advancements?
    • - Advanced Technology helps vehicle fuel efficiency-
    • Parking Sensors
  26. automobile problems?
    - Problems are air pollution- more deaths due to drinking and driving, texting and driving
  27. Continental Climate 
    climate type that develops away from the influence of the ocean. The annual temperature range tends to be large and precipitation low.
  28. Maritime Climate 
     
    the climate type that is strongly influenced by the closeness of an ocean or other large bodies of water. The annual temperature range tends to be small and precipitation is high.
  29. population pyramid
    a graph that depicts population distribution in age and sex
  30. Age Roles?
    • - Chlidren (under 15)
    • - Working Adults (15 to 64)
    • - Older Adults ( 65+)
  31. Stages of population change?
    • Stage 1: the combination of a high birth rate and a high death rate keeps the size of the population stable.
    • Stage 2: the death rate drops ( especially in infants), while the birth rate remains high.
    • Stage 3: a drop in the birth rate occurs. Parents are limiting the sizes of their family.
    • Stage 4: the birth rate declines to the point where it is close to the death rate. This causes the population to level off.
  32. Environmental Sustainability:
     to meet the needs of the present without compromising the ability to meet those of the future.
  33. Environmental Sustainability Index (ESI)
    the measurement of current and future levels of environmental sustainability in each of 146 countries.
  34. Residential Density
    the measure of the number of housing units per hectare.
  35. Residential Land Use Factors?
    cost of land and age of neighbourhood
  36. Foreign Aid
    financial assistance provided to developing countries, usually developed countries.
  37. Majority of Canada's Foreign aid is manage by?
    CIDA (Canadian International Development Agency)
  38. Four Principles of Foreign Aid
    deal with poverty first, promote development, help people to help themselves, and build partnerships
  39. Foreign Aid other Organizations
    Government provided foreign aid or Official Development Assistance (ODA)- Non- governmental Organizations (NGO’s) E.g.) Red Cross
  40. Free Trade
    Trade without Tariff Barriers
  41. Imports
    products or services that is brought into a country from another country
  42. Exports
    Products or services produced in one country for sale in another country
  43. Globalization
     The development of an increasingly integrated world in which free movement of goods, services, and people make national borders less important
  44. Four-digit Grid Reference
    "Read Right, Up" Combining the two digits from the east and the two digits from the north.
  45. Developed countries Characteristics
    - highest level of economic and social development- high income- abundant food-good housing-can afford many luxuries- (e.g. Canada)
  46. Developing Countries Characteristics
    - poorly developed economy- citizens have low income- shortage of food- poor housing- cannot afford luxuries- (e.g. Mexico)
  47. Newly Industrializing Countries Characteristics
    - transition stage between developing and developed country -rapidly growing economies- (e.g. Poland)
  48. Immigration History
    - immigration is one of the most dominant themes → enormous number of immigrants over a period of almost 400 years→ immigrants from so many different countries have made Canada culturally diverse
  49. Source of Immigrants 
    In 19th and 20th century, immigrants came from British Isle and Europe.
  50. Zoning Laws
    • control the amount of development in an area.
    • → to avoid conflicts between land use.
  51. Name 4 location factors
    • historical head start
    • market
    • location of raw materials
    • power
    • freshwater
    • labour
    • transportation
    • political situation 
  52. topograpihc map
    large scale map showing both natural and human made features
  53. thematic map
    containing information on only one topc
  54. General purpose map
    contains many different types of information
  55. map
    representaion of Earths features drawn on a flat surface
  56. how is oil and gas formed
    • remains of marine animals falls to sea floor
    • build up in thick layers and are covered by sand and silt
    • over time, compressed the lower layers into sedimentary orck
    • bacterial action, heat and pressure covert it into oil and gas 
  57. population growth formula
    natural increase + Net migration
  58. Rural Population characteristics
    low population density and dispersed population distribution
  59. Representive Fraction Scale
    give as a ration of distance on the map to distance on the ground
  60. Direct Statement
    uses words to describe the relationship
  61. Representive Fraction converted to Direct Statement
    divide the  right side of the equation by 100 00
  62. direct statement converted to Representive Fraction
    multiply right side by 100 000
  63. Temperature Range Formula
    coldest weather - warmest weather
  64. United nations purpose
    to provide emergency relief and promote the role of children
  65. Urban Land Use Types
    • commercial
    • industrial
    • institutional
    • open space
    • recreational
    • residential
    • transportation 
  66. Urban Land use problems
    • old building in down town
    • congested roads
    • limited parking
    • crowded unattractive pedestrians in areas 
  67. water issues
    • pollution
    • loss of wetlands (storage) 
  68. two types of trade
    • whole sale( selling goods to businesses
    • Retail ( selling directly to public -stores, vending machines) 

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