Ch. 4 - Biology

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Ch. 4 - Biology
2012-06-27 15:28:49
Biology 95

bio 95
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  1. All cells have a ______ and _______ and all start out life with DNA
    Plasma Membrane and cytoplasm
  2. Plasma Membrane
    an outer membrane that separates the cells contents from its envronment
  3. Cytoplasm
    the plasma membrane encloses a fluid or jellylike mixture of water, sugars, ions and proteins
  4. Triglyceride
    a fat with three fatty acid tails and a glycerol heat (hydrocarbon tail)

    loses hydrophilic character
  5. Steriod
    type of lipid with 4 carbon rings and no fatty acid tails.

    -cholesterol, bile salts, vitamin D
  6. Phospholipids
    a lipid w/ a phosphate group in its hydrophilic head, and two ninpolar fatty acids
  7. Entropy
    Measure of how much the energy of a system is dispersed
  8. First Law of thermodynamics
    Energy cannot be created or destroyed

    Energy can be converted from one to another and thus transferred between objects or systems
  9. Second Law of Thermodynamics
    Energy tends to dispense spontaneosly

    A bid dispenses at each energy transfer usually as heat

    energy tends to spread out spontaneosly
  10. Potential enery
    Stored Energy

    chemical bonds are potential energy
  11. ATP
    Adenosine triphosphate

    -an energy carrier that couples endergonic w/ exergonic reations in cells
  12. Phosphorylation
    The transfer of a phosphate group
  13. ATP/ADP cycle
    • The cycle of using and replenishing atp
    • process in which cells regenerate ATP, ADP forms when ATP loses a phospahtegroup
  14. Endergonic
    • Energy in
    • Reaction that converts molecules w/ lower energy to molecules w. higer energy.
    • Requires net input of free energy to proceed
  15. Exergonic
    • Energy out
    • reaction that converts molecules w. higher energy to molecules w. lower energy
  16. Activation Energy
    • minimum amount of energy required to start a reaction
    • keeps exergonic reations from starting spontaneosly
  17. Active sites
    pockets where substrates bind and where reactions proceed
  18. Nucleus
    • Protecting and controlling access to DNA
    • separation of DNA from cytoplasm
    • makes ribosome subunits'controls access to DNA
  19. Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)
    Routing, motifying new polypeptide chains; synthesizing lipids: other tasks

    Makes enzymes, lipids and protein

    destroys toxins reclyces wastes and has other
  20. Golgi body
    Modifying new polypeptide chain/ sorting shipping proteins and lipids

    • Finishes, sorts, ships lipids, enzymes and proteins
    • both for use inside cell or export
  21. Vesicles
    transporting, storing, or digesting substances in a cell other functions
  22. Mitochondrion
    Making ATP by glucose breakdown

    Energy powerhouse produces man atp by aerobic respiration
  23. Lysosomes
    Intracellular Digestion, recycles material

    recycle bin
  24. Peroxisome
    Inactivation toxins
  25. Vacuole
  26. Ribosomes
    Assembling polypeptide chains

    Attached to rough ER and free in cytoplasm

    sites of protein synthesis
  27. Nucleolus
    Assembly of ribosome subunits
  28. Centriole
    Anchor for cytoskeleton

    Special centers that produce and organize microtubules
  29. Cytoskeleton
    -Intermediate filaments
    Contributes to cell shape, internal organization, movement

    Structural supports imparts shape to cell moves cell and its components
  30. Endomembrane System
    Rough ER VEsicles, Smooth ER Golgi body, Plasma Membrane
  31. Rough ER
    MOdifies proteins made by ribosomes attached to it
  32. Smooth ER
    Makes lipids, breaks down carbohydrates and fats, inactivates toxins
  33. Choloroplasm
    • Specialized in photosynthesis
    • some starch storage
    • Make sugar, some protists
  34. Microfilaments
    • Reinforcing cytoskeleton element/
    • a fiber of actin subunits

    • Fibers that consist primarly o subunits of the globular protein actin.
    • -they stregnthen or
    • -change the shape of eukaryotic cells
  35. Microtubules
    long, hollow cylinders that consist of subunits of the protein tubulin
  36. inrermediate filaments
    Stable cythoskeletal element that stuctureally supports cells and tissues