341 Chapter 2

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obrianstanek
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159464
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341 Chapter 2
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2012-06-21 11:01:50
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Linguistics 341 Test
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341 Chapter 2 Linguistics Study Guide
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  1. Morpheme
    • basic unity when studying morphology
    • (words and parts of words). 
    • It is the smallest unit of language that carries meaning
  2. Two kinds of Morphemes
    Bound and Free
  3. Free Morpheme
    Stand alone


    Grammatical or Lexical
  4. Lexical Morphemes
    noun

    adjective

    verb
  5. Grammatical Morphemes
    • auxiliary verb
    • definite articles
    • indefinite articles
    • demonstrative adjective   
    • posessive adjective
    • pronoun
    • preposition
    • conjunction
  6. auxilary verb
    • progressive
    • perfect
    • passive
    • modal
  7. progressive
    • auxilary verb
    • form of the verb BE and always followed by –ing
    • Example:I am kicking the desk.
  8. perfect
    • auxilary verb
    • form of the verb HAVE + en participle
    • Example:   He has taken out the garbage.
  9. passive
    • auxilary verb
    • BE + en participle
    • Example:   It is broken.
  10. modal
    • auxilary verba.      
    • Can
    • Could
    • May
    • Might
    • Will 
    • Would      
    • Shall     
    • Should     
    • must
  11. Definite Article
    ex-the
  12. Indefinite Article
    • a- before consonant sound       
    • an- before a vowel sound
  13. demonstrative adjective
    • proximal 
    • dismal
  14. Proximal
    • Demonstrative Adjective
    • distance something is close emotionally and physically
    • singular- this
    • plural- these
  15. Distal
    • Demonstrative Adjective
    •   Far away
    • singular-that
    • plural-those
  16. Possesive Adjective
    • 1st person sing- my plural- our
    • 2nd person sing- your plural- your
    • 3rd person sing- his/her/its plural their
  17. Pronouns
    • Personal Pronouns
    • Indefinite
    • Reflexive
    • Relative
    • Demonstrative
  18. Personal Pronoun
    •                subject      object          possessive
    •                Sing   pl   sing   pl        sing       pl
    • 1st p.       I       we    me     us        mine     ours
    • 2nd p.    you   you    you  you     your      yours
    • 3rd p.     he    they   him    them    his
    •              she              her                hers
    •               it                 it                   its 
    •      
    •            
    •  
  19. Case
    different morphological forms for different syntax functions
  20. Hypercorrection
    correct something that was never wrong in the first place
  21. Indefinite Pronoun
    • Anyone      
    • Anybody       
    • Something     
    • Someone
  22. Reflexive Pronoun
    • myself      
    • yourself       
    • himself/ hisself      
    • herself       
    • itself        
    • themselves
  23. Reflexive Pronoun
    I know a woman who has 300 cars.
  24. Demonstrative Pronoun
    • I lost your key so you can take mine. 
    • This
    • These
    • That
    • Those
    • Example- This book is nothing like that.
    • Demonstrative adjective  demonstrative pronoun
  25. Prepositions
    • Occur before the noun       
    • In       
    • Over       
    • Under      
    • Depending on       
    • According to
  26. Conjunctions
    • or
    • but
    • and  
  27. Bound Morpheme
    • Derivational
    • Inflectional
  28. Derivational
    • Lexicon
    • Create a new word (ex-pavement)    
    • Often change the word class (pave is a verb pavement is a noun- patron/patronize)
    • Based on meaning (I like the pavement.)
    • Sensitive to the words they attach (sometimes they do and sometimes they don’t
    • All prefixes are Derivational
  29. Inflectional
    • Grammar
    • Do not create a new word, but a different form of the word. (ex-paves)
    • Never change the word class (pave/ paves  big/bigger)Dictated or chosen by the grammar (I pave.  He paves.)Patterned- attach to every member of a class 
    • There are eight inflectional endings in English:
  30. Inflectional Endings
    • Verbal Suffixes
    • -ing   -ed   -s   -en 
    • Noun Suffixes
    • -s     -s 
    • Adjective Suffixes  
    • -er   -est 
  31. Affixed Morphemes
    • Prefix
    • Suffix
    • Infixes
    • Circumfixes
    • Interweaving morphemes   
  32. Infixes
    Abso-fucking-lutely
  33. Circumfixes
    on both sides of the word
  34. Interweaving Mophemes
    Triconsonantal stem: adding different sounds around the three consonant stem

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