Music history, ch 5-6

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kaila.lifferth
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159471
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Music history, ch 5-6
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2012-06-25 15:35:25
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music history
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music history vocabulary
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  1. organum
    one of several styles of early polyphony from the ninth trhough thirteenth centuries, involving the addition of one or more voices to an existing chant. (2) a piece, whether imporvised or written, in one of those styles, in which one voice is drawn from a chant. 
  2. conductus
    a serious medieval song, monophonic or polyphonic, setting a rhymed, rhythmic Latin poem.
  3. motet
    Polyphonic vocal composition; the specific meaning changes over time. The earliest motets add a text to an existing discant clausula. Thirteenth-century motets feature one or more voices, each with its own sacred or secular text in Latin or French, above a tenor drawn from chant or other melody. 
  4. counterpoint
    The combination of two or more simultaneous melodic lines according to a set of rules.
  5. parallel organum 
    type of polyphony in which an added voice moves in exact parallel to a chant, normally a perfect fifth below it. Either voice may be doubled at the octave.
  6. Principal voice
    the original chant melody
  7. organal voice
    the voice that is added avoce or below the original chant melody.
  8. mixed parallel and oblique organum
    Early form of organum that combines parallel motion with oblique motion (in which the organal voice remains on the same note while the principal voice moves) in order to avoid tritones.
  9. free organum
    style of organum in which the organal voice moves in a free mixture of contrary, oblique, parallel, and similar motion against the chant.
  10. Aquitanian polyphony
    style of polyphony from the twelfth century, encompassing both discant and florid organum.
  11. discant
    12th C style of polyphony in which the upper voice or voices have about one to three notes for each note of the lower voice
  12. florid organum
    12th C style of two-voice polyphony in which the lower voice sustains relatively long notes while the upper voice sings note-groups of varying length above each note of the lower voice,
  13. tenor
    in polyphone of the 12th and 13th centuries, the voice part that has the chant or other borrowed melody, often in long-held notes.
  14. score notation
    a type of notation in which the different voices or parts are aligned vertically to show how they are coordinated with each other.
  15. ligatures
    neume-like noteshape used to indicate a short rhythmic pattern in 12th- 16th C notation.
  16. breve
    in medieval and renaissance systems of rhythmic noationa, a note that is normally equal to half or a third of a long.
  17. long
    in medieval and renaissance systems of rhythmic notaion, a note equal to two or three breves.
  18. rhythmic modes
    system of six durational patterns (for example, mode 1, long-short) used in polyphoney of the late 12th and 13th centuries, used as the basis of the rhythmic notation of the Notre Dame composers.
  19. tempus
    In medieval systems of notation, the basic unit. See also mode, time, and prolation.
  20. clausula
    In Notre Dame polyphony, a self-contained section of an organum that closes with a cendence.
  21. substitute clausula
    In Notre Dame plyphony, a new clausula (usually in discant style) designed to replace the original plyphonic setting of a particular segment of a chant.
  22. organum duplum, triplume, and quadruplume
    in notre Dame polyphony, an organum in two voices, three voices, and four voices respectively.
  23. voice exchange
    in polyphony, a technique in which voices trade segments of music, so that the same combination of lines is heard twice or more, but with different voices singing each line.
  24. conductus
    a serious medieval song, monophonic or polyphonic, setting a rhymed, rhythmic Latin poem.
  25. cauda (pl. caudae)
    melismatic passage in a polyphonic conductus.
  26. double motet
    thirtheenth-century motet in three voices with different texts in the duplum and triplum.
  27. triple motet
    thirteenth century motet in four voices, with a different text in each voice above the tenor.
  28. cantus firmus
    an existing melody, often taken from a Gregorian chant, on which a new polyphonic work is based; used especially for melodies presented in long notes.
  29. perfection
    in medieval systems of noation, a unit of duration equal to three tempora, akin to a measure of three beats.
  30. rondellus
    technique in medieval English polyphony in which two or three phrases of music, first heard simultaneously in different voices, are each sung in turn by each of the voices.
  31. rota
    form of medieval English polyphony in which two or more voices sing the same melody, entering at differnt times and repeating the melody until all stop together. See canon.
  32. ars nova
    style of polyphony from 14th C France, distinguished from earlier styles by a new system of rhythmic notation that allowed duple or triple division of note values, syncopation, and great rhythmic flexibility.
  33. minim
    in Ars nova and Renaissance systems of rhythmic notation, a note that is equal to half or a third of a seibreve.
  34. mensuration signs
    in Ars nova and renaissance systems of rhythmic notation, signs that indicate which combination of time and prolation to use. The predecessors of time signatures.
  35. talea
    in an isorhythmic composition, an extended rhythmic pattern repeated one or more times, usually in the tenor. Compare color.
  36. color
    in an isorhythmic composition, a repeated melodic pattern, as opposed to the repeating rhythmic pattern (the talea).
  37. imperfect (or minor) division
    in medieval and renaissance notation, a division of a note value into two of the next smaller units (rather than three)
  38. perfect (or major) division 
    in medieval and Renaissance notation, a division of a note value into three (rather than two) of the next smaller unit.
  39. mode, time, and prolation
    the three levels of rhythmic division in Ars Nova notation, Mode is the division of longs into breves; time the division of breves into semibreves; and prolation the the division of semibreves into minims.
  40. hocket
    in 13th and 14th C polyphony, the device of alternating rapidly between two voices, each resting while the other sings, as if a single melody is split between them; or a composition based on this device.
  41. virelai
    French forme fixe in the pattern A bba A bba A bba A, in which a refrain (A) alternates with stanzas with the musical form bba, the "a" using the same music as the refrain.
  42. form fixes
    schemes of poetic and musical repetition, each featuring a refrain, used in late medieval and 15th C french chansons; in particular, the ballade, rondeau, and virelai.
  43. treble-dominated style
    style common in the 14th and 15th centuries, in which the main melody is in the cantus, the upper voice carrything the text, supported by a slower moving tenor and contratenor.
  44. treble
    a high voice or a part written for high voice, especially the highest part in three-part polyphony of the 14th and 15th centuries.
  45. cantus
    in polyphony of the 14th and 15th centures, the highest voice, especially the texted voice in a polyohonic song.
  46. ballade
    French forme fixe, normally in three stanzas, in which each stanza has the musical form aab and ends with a refrain.
  47. Ars Subtilior
    (Latin, "more subtle art") style of polyphony from the late 14th or very early 15th centuries in sourthern France and northern Italy, distinguished by extreme complexity in rhythm and notation.
  48. madrigal
    14th century Italian poetic form and its musical setting having two or three stanzas followed by a ritornello.
  49. ritornello
    in a 14th C madrigal, the closing section, in a different meter from the preceding verses.
  50. caccia
    14th C Italian form featuring two voices in canon over a free untexted tenor.
  51. ballata
    14th C Italian song genre with the form AbbaA, in which A is the ripresa or refrain, and the single stanza consists of two piedi (bb) and a volta (a) sung to the music of the ripresa.
  52. haut
    In the 14th-16th centuries, term for loud insturments such as cornetts and sackbuts.
  53. bas
    (French "low"; pronounced BAH) in the 14th-16th centuries, term for soft instruments such as vielles and harps.
  54. stop
    mechanism on an organ to turn on or off the sounding of certain sets of pipes.
  55. musica ficta
    in polyphony of the 14th- 16th centuries, the practice of raising or lowering by a semitine the pitch of a written note, particularly at a cedence, for the sake of smoother harmony or motion of the parts.
  56. double leading-tone cadence
    cadence popular in the 14th and 15th centuries, in which the bottom voice moves down a whole tone and the upper voices move up a semitone, forming a major third and major sixth expanding to an open fifth and octave.
  57. phrygian cadence
    cadence in which the bottom voice moves down a semitone and upper voices move up a whole tone to form a fifth and octave over the cadential note.

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