Ethics

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Author:
cali-amber
ID:
159495
Filename:
Ethics
Updated:
2012-06-20 20:03:32
Tags:
ethics
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Description:
Test 2
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  1. Beneficence:
    moral requirement to promote well-being of pts; helping action or "showing care"
  2. Benevolence:
    geniunely caring about & having positive attitudes towards pts; caring motives & character
  3. Malady:
    negative medical condition
  4. Illness:
    how malady is experienced by the individual
  5. Medical good:
    -what doesn't it include?
    • pt's well-being measured in terms of health
    • -doesn't inc. all aspects of financial well-being or happiness in relationships
  6. Total good:
    overall, unified well-being
  7. 3 crucial relationships of relationship-based care:
    • 1. deep respect & concern for pt that expressed itself as partnership
    • 2.  self knowing & self caring that inc. knowing ones own beliefs & feelings
    • 3. interdependency of healthcare team & shared responsibility for all apsects of pts well-being
  8. Professional distance:
    not becoming inappropriately involved, emotionally or behaviorally, w/ clients & others involved in work
  9. Episodic conflict of interest:
    • arises from choices made voluntarily
    • ex:  giving & accepting personal gifts on the job
  10. Systemic conflict of interest:
    • arise from very structure of professions & other social practices
    • ex:  fee for service to provide unnecessary services to pts to inc profits
  11. Technical autonomy:
    control over decisions & procedures related to one's work
  12. Socioeconomic autonomy:
    control over economic resources necessary to complete one's work
  13. 2 external countervailing forces of professional autonomy:
    • -professional dominance
    • -rationalization & de-professionalism
  14. 1 internal countervailing force to professional autonomy:
    insularity (profession becomes so focused on itself that it forgets it is there to serve public, & erosion of profession itself)
  15. 5 principles of beneficence:
    • 1. prevent evil
    • 2. remove harm
    • 3. rescue people who are in danger
    • 4. protect & defend
    • 5. help disabled
  16. Beneficence continuum:
    strict obligation (truth telling, not committing murder)  --> weak obligation (maintaining a civil level of disclosure during legitimate disagreement) --> ideals beyond the obligatory --> saintly & heroic ideals
  17. Role responsibility:
    duties attached to formal assignmets within organization
  18. Interests:
    all benefits to the professional as well as altruistic concerns of the person
  19. Conflicting interest ex:
    parents wanting divorce but wanting to stay together for the kid
  20. Nonmaleficence:
    do no harm
  21. 5 rules of nonmaleficence:
    • 1. do not kill
    • 2. do not cause pain/suffering
    • 3. do not incapacitate
    • 4. do not cause offense
    • 5. do not deprive others of the goods of life
  22. 4 primary duties of professionals:
    autonomy, beneficence, nonmalificence, & justice
  23. Quid pro quo (sexual harassment):
    unwelcome sexual advances/requests that is made a condition of employment, promotion, pay rate, or other job benefit
  24. Hostile work environment  (sexual harassment):
    unwelcome sexual advances/requests that may unreasonably interfere w/ work performance or create intimidating or offenseive work environment
  25. Equality:
    state of being equal in status, rights, & opportunities
  26. Equity & ex:
    • the quality of being fair & equal
    • -puts some constraints on autonomy so we can all live in just society
    • ex:  flat tax rate
  27. Principle of formal justice:
    • no person should be treated unequally, despite all difference w/ other persons, until it has been shown that there is a difference between them relevant to the tx at stake
    • -only use relevant variables to screen people in & out
  28. Distributive justice:
    equally distribute, but takes something from us
  29. Comparative justice:
    • looking at how our situation compares to someone else's
    • ex:  life expecancy, womens vs mens salaries
  30. 6 material principles of justice:
    • 1. equal share
    • 2. need
    • 3. effort
    • 4. contribution
    • 5. merit
    • 6. free market
  31. Fundamental need:
    something that a person will be harmed or detrimentally affected by in a fundamental way if that thing is not obtained
  32. Fundamental harm:
    when we don't get fundamental needs, inc food, info, making own healthcare decisions, air, water, & safe working environment
  33. 2 tiers in healthcare delivery:
    • 1.  covers fundamental needs, decent level of healthcare
    • 2. anything else you want; you can buy health insurance to supplement tier 1
  34. Fair opportunity rule:
    -narrow version of what principle?
    • says that differences between people should be considered relevant only if those persons can be help responsible for those differences
    • -principle of formal justice
  35. Fair opportunity rule divides things into 2 categories (define):
    • -natural lottery:  genetic things you inherently can't control
    • -social lottery:  things that are due solely to being born in particular area with particular things/ wealth
  36. Free market- advantage & disadvantage:
    • -flexible
    • -but easily manipulated and tends to exploit public opinion rather than public need
  37. 4 ways to manage macroallocations:
    • 1. free market
    • 2. single payer
    • 3. state managed competition
    • 4. mandated insurance (universal healthcare)
  38. 3 ways to manage microallocations:
    • 1. lottery
    • 2. queing
    • 3. triage
  39. 3 things necessary for giving consent:
    • 1. must be voluntary
    • 2. pt needs to be informed- know their rights & risks of participating
    • 3. must be competent
  40. Nocebo:
    harmful consequences caused by the belief in the threatened neg outcome
  41. Placebo:
    positive results from an intervention that can't be attributed to a physical intervention or agent
  42. When is it ok to use a placebo?
    Also, 2 specific factors that must be present: 
    • when no proven tx is exists & when use of placebo is necessary to prove a tx works
    • 1. more harm than good
    • 2. outcomes balanced 
  43. 2 placebo mechanisms (& examples):
    • 1. results achieved through expectation:  if you tell them it costs more, they will experience better outcomes; if you tell them it's morphine when it's really saline, they may still experience pain relief
    • 2. classical conditioning:  placebo treatment (saline) paired with a powerful drug tx, the placebo will elicit same physiological response for a while
  44. 5 compromise positions for animal rights (define):
    • 1. interdependency in nature:  acknowledgement of the interdependency of all life
    • 2. respect does not demand identical tx:  all life is a continuum from single cell plants --> animals
    • 3. principle of potentiality:  future prospects & the potential for complex family & community relationships needs to be considered
    • 4. minimal harm:  when harm is done, it needs to be justified w/ good reasons (reasonable person standard)
    • 5. principle of proportionality:  must select species from lowest level of animal hierarchy to achieve desired outcome 
  45. Pain (animals):
    unpleasant sensory & emotional experience assoc w/ actual or potential tissue damage
  46. Distress (animals):
    state in which animal is unable to adapt to an altered environment or to altered internal stimuli
  47. Discomfort (animals):
    min. change in animal's adaptive or homeostasis as result of biological, physical, social, or psychological changes in environment
  48. Anxiety (animals):
    emotional state of alertness prompted by unknown danger that may be present in environment
  49. Fear (animals):
    experience or known danger in the immediate environment
  50. Replacement:
    use computer to dec use of live animals
  51. Reduction:
    gather greatest info from smallest number of animals
  52. Refinement:
    minimize pain & discomfort of all animals in testing when there is no replacement for animals

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