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2012-06-21 11:39:41

June 18 notes
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  1. What is the definition of linguistics?
    The scientific study of language.
  2. Linguists use the scientific method:  what are the steps of this method?
    • Hypothesis
    • Develop a method/collection of data
    • Analysis 
  3. Language employs what types of sciences?
    • Cognitive Science
    • Social Science 
  4. Noam Chomsky
    • Big name in linguistics
    • Language is of the mind only - once language leaves your mind it has nothing to do with linguistics
    • Competence - what is stored in your mind 
  5. Ferdinad de Sassure
    Competence (Langue) is diferent from performance (parole)
  6. Generative School of Linguistics
    uncovering competence
  7. Functionalism
    How does social science play into cognitivism

    You cannot separate language from its use as a social system 
  8. Levels of linguistic analysis
    • phonetics
    • phonology
    • morphology
    • syntax
    • semantics 
  9. Phonetics
    ANY AND ALL sounds of every human language
  10. Phonology
    • Pattern of sounds in a language 
    • Study of sounds and patterns in 1 specific language 
  11. Morphology
    The study of words and parts of words
  12. Syntax
    The meaningful order of words in a language
  13. Semantics
    The meaning of a language
  14. The linguistic sign 
    (dog example) 
    • consists of a phonetic pole and a semantic pole
    • dendtative-core meaning
    • connotative - other implied meanings
    • Relationship is arbitrary
  15. Non (less) Arbitrary Signs
    • onomatapoeia - boom, splash
    • long long story
    • I came, I saw, I conqured (order reflects order in reality) 
  16. Human Language vs. Animal Language
    • Displacement - humans can use language to talk about times and places of long ago
    • Productivity-We can make new words/language
    • Arbitrary
    • Culturally Transmitted - Korean child being rasied by american parents will speak english - dog being raised by cats will still bark and act like dog.
  17. Doing Linguistics
    • Pattern - Looking for a pattern to make meaning
    • Rule: NP = defArt+Adj+Noun
    • "Rule" in linguistics
    • "grammar" in linguistics 
  18. Prescriptivism
    • Prescriptive Approach
    • Prescriptive Grammar
    • normative/mosaic (negative)
    • how things "should be"
    • "good" usage
    • pedagogical 
  19. Descriptivism
    • descriptive approach
    • descriptive grammar
    • what IS 
  20. using linguistics
    • Everyone can use linguistics
    • Example:  Literary Criticism (Dracula in Class) it to refer to a child then, he/him when the relationship changed 
  21. Media of Language
    • Channels that language is exchanged in
    • 1. Speech (primary)
    • 2. Writing
    • 3. Signed (ASL)
    • 4. ELanguages texting/computers