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What is the definition of linguistics?
The scientific study of language.
Linguists use the scientific method: what are the steps of this method?
- Develop a method/collection of data
Language employs what types of sciences?
- Cognitive Science
- Social Science
- Big name in linguistics
- Language is of the mind only - once language leaves your mind it has nothing to do with linguistics
- Competence - what is stored in your mind
Ferdinad de Sassure
Competence (Langue) is diferent from performance (parole)
Generative School of Linguistics
How does social science play into cognitivism
You cannot separate language from its use as a social system
Levels of linguistic analysis
ANY AND ALL sounds of every human language
- Pattern of sounds in a language
- Study of sounds and patterns in 1 specific language
The study of words and parts of words
The meaningful order of words in a language
The meaning of a language
The linguistic sign
- consists of a phonetic pole and a semantic pole
- dendtative-core meaning
- connotative - other implied meanings
- Relationship is arbitrary
Non (less) Arbitrary Signs
- onomatapoeia - boom, splash
- long long story
- I came, I saw, I conqured (order reflects order in reality)
Human Language vs. Animal Language
- Displacement - humans can use language to talk about times and places of long ago
- Productivity-We can make new words/language
- Culturally Transmitted - Korean child being rasied by american parents will speak english - dog being raised by cats will still bark and act like dog.
- Pattern - Looking for a pattern to make meaning
- Rule: NP = defArt+Adj+Noun
- "Rule" in linguistics
- "grammar" in linguistics
- Prescriptive Approach
- Prescriptive Grammar
- normative/mosaic (negative)
- how things "should be"
- "good" usage
- descriptive approach
- descriptive grammar
- what IS
- Everyone can use linguistics
- Example: Literary Criticism (Dracula in Class) it to refer to a child then, he/him when the relationship changed
Media of Language
- Channels that language is exchanged in
- 1. Speech (primary)
- 2. Writing
- 3. Signed (ASL)
- 4. ELanguages texting/computers