Exam 2: Foot
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How many bones are in the foot?
How many tarsal bones are there?
What are the names of the tarsal bones?
- 3 cuneiforms
How many metatarsal bones?
How many phalanges in the first toe?
What is another name for the ankle joint?
What does crural stand for?
What are the bony articulations of the ankle joint?
talus, tibia, and fibula
Which bone of the foot does the weight of the body rest upon?
the top of the talus
What movements are possible at the ankle joint?
dorisflexion and plantar flexion
What is dorsiflexion?
raising the toes off the ground
What is plantar flexion?
raising the heel off the ground
What types of joints are found in the tarsal and metatarsal areas?
What types of joints are found in the metatarsal-phalangeal and interphalangeal areas?
What movements occur at the subtalar and midtarsal joints?
inversion and eversion of the foot
Where is the tarsal tunnel?
on the medial side of the foot where posterior tibial a. and tibial n. pass to foot
deep fascia that covers the musculature in the sole of the foot
- tearing of the plantar aponeurosis
- takes a long time to heal because of minimal blood supply
How many muscle layers of the sole of the foot are there?
Are the muscle layers on the sole of the foot made up of intrinsic or extrinsic muscles?
both intrinsic and extrinsic
What is a common function of the muscles on the soles of the feet?
maintain arches of the foot
What nerves innervate the foot?
medial and lateral plantar nerves
What are the medial and lateral plantar nerves a branch from?
The medial plantar nerve gives muscular branches to which muscles?
- abductor hallucis
- flexo digitorum brevis
- flexor hallucis brevis
- 1st lumbrical muscle
What does the cutaneous branch of the medial plantar nerve supply?
both sides of the big toe, 2nd and 3rd toes, and tibial side of 4th toe
The distribution of the medial plantar nerve resembles the distribution of which nerve in the hand?
The lateral plantar nerve gives muscular branches to which muscles?
abductor digiti minimi, quadratus plantae, flexor digiti minimi brevis, adductor hallucis, lateral 3 lmbricals and interossei muscles
What does the cutaneous branch of the lateral plantar nerve supply?
lateral side of the 4th toe and both sides of the 5th toe
The distribution of the lateral plantar nerve closely resembles the distribution of which nerve in the hand?
What is the principal artery of the sole of the foot?
lateral plantar artery
What is the lateral plantar artery a continuation of?
posterior tibial artery
What does the lateral plantar artery form?
What arises off the plantar arch?
plantar metatarsal arteries
What artery supplies the dorsum of the foot?
the dorsalis pedis artery
What is the dorsalis pedis artery a continuation of?
anterior tibial artery
Why does the foot have an arched form?
- to act as a lever for the forward propulsion of the body in walking and running
- support the body weight in erect posture
Is it normal for a child at rest in the upright posture to have a flat foot?
What makes the arch of the foot apparent?
Is the arching of the foot in an adult a permanent feature?
What causes the arch of an adult foot to become more pronounced?
What are the names of the two arches of the foot?
- longitudinal arch
- transverse arch
What makes up th longitudinal arch?
all tarsal and metatarsal bones
What is the longitudinal arch divided into?
medial and lateral arch
Which of the longitudinal arch is more pronounced?
What makes up the medial arch?
- short posterior pillar formed by calcaneus and body of talsus
- keystone formed by head of talus
- long anterior pillar formed by navicular, cuniforms and three medial metatarsals
What is the critical point of the medial arch?
the keystone (head of talus)
What supports the keystone of the medial arch (head of talus)?
- tendons of deep muscles on the back of the leg
- small muscles in sole of foot
- plantar aponeurosis
- plantar ligaments of all the joints (esp. plantar calcaneo-navicular lig and long and short plantar ligs)
What is another name for the calcaneo-navicular ligament?
What are the principal support of arches?
When would ligaments be called on to support the arches of the foot?
when temporary and excessive strain in put on them
Where is the transverse arch found?
in the region of the cuboid and cuneiform bones and bases of metatarsals
What is the transverse arch produced by?
shapes of the bones
What maintains the transverse arch?
peroneus longus and tibialis posterior tendons
What causes the longitudinal and transverse arch to be flattened?
in the resting upright position when weight of body is acting on talus
In activity, the simultaneous contraction of which muscles restore and accentuate the arches converting th foot into an almost rigid but resilient lever?
tibialis posterior, flexor digitorum longus, peroneus longus and peroneus brevis, and small intinsic muscles of the foot
Which bone is at the peak of the medial arch?
Structural integrity of longitudinal arches depends on:
- keystone (peak) = talus
- ligaments (last line of defense)
- first line of defense:
- -tibialis posterior
- -flexor digitorum longus
- -flexor hallucis longus
- second line of defense:
- -intrinsic mm. of foot
Which muscles pass through the tarsal tunnel?
- tibialis posterior
- flexor digitorum longus
- flexor hallucis longus
What happens to muscles as people age?
What happens when muscles of the feet atrophy in elderly patients?
- compromises integrity of arches
- fallen arches
What is a common place for seasamoid bones to form?
flexor hallucis brevis
What do seasmoid bones do?
increase mechanical advantage of muscle
Why does the quadratus plantae attach to the flexor digitorum longus?
to produce the movement of the flexor digitorum tendons by having both muscles contract at the same time
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