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List all the resistances that involved with Aminoglycosides.
- 1) Reduced access
- - Efflux pump via pseudomonas or acinetobactor
- - Reduced permeability via porin selection or mutation
- 2) Target alteration
- - Streptomycin via a 30S subunit mutation
- 3) Modification
- - N-acetyltransferase
- - O-adenyltransferase
- - O-phosphotransferase
What are the types of epithelial ovarian tumors?
SEROUS = cystadenoma & cystadenocarcinoma
Mucinous = cystadenoma & cystadenocarcinoma
- Endometrioid carcinoma
- clear cell carcinoma
What are the 4 endometrial neoplasias?
Endometrioid - estrogen exposure
Non-endometrioid - estrogen deficiency
Leiomyoma- estrogen only promotes. Bundles and whorls
Leiomyosarcoma - Lung metastasis
What are the 4 causes of thrombocytopenia?
- 1. Decreased production in the BM
- 2. Inc megakaryocytes in BM -> decreased survival
- 3. Sequestration
- 4. dilution
What is the disease and the characteristics that is caused by ADAMTS13 deficiency?
- Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura
- 1. Fever
- 2. Thrombocytopenia
- 3. Microangiopathic hemolytic anemia
- 4. Kidney failure
- 5. Mental status change
What is Glanzmann thrombasthenia?
Defect in glycoprotein IIb-IIIa -> no integrin that binds fibrinogen -> no aggregation.
Pathophysiology of rubeosis iridis
VEGF --> new blood vessels in the iris and can block the anterior chamber angle -> increased intraocular pressure.
What shifts the oxygen saturation curve to the right?
- Decreased O2 affinity
- increased P50
- increased metabolic needs
- Increased Pco2
- Increased temperature
- increased H
- decreased pH
- high altitude
- increased 2,3-DPG
What are the symptoms present with a stroke patient?
Sensory kept but cannot describe the object, no 2 point discrimination, graphesthesia, no sharp or dull discrimination.
When would the be loss of sensation in the I/L face but C/L extremities?
If there is a lesion in the thalamus.
What is the equation for prevalence using incidence?
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