science exam 9

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science exam 9
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2012-06-21 22:38:35
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science exam 9
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  1. Pure substance
    • one type of particle (created and
    • separated by chemical properties)

    Ex) carbon dioxide, water, and salt.
  2. Element
    • - substance with only one kind of particle.
    • Identified with a symbol

    Ex) Au Gold, H Hydrogen
  3. Compound
    • substance has two or more particles chemically
    • combined. Identified with formula

    Ex) water H2O, salt NaCl, carbon dioxide CO2
  4. Mixture
    • - two or more types of particles not chemically
    • combined. Created and separated by physical properties

    Ex) shampoo, pizza, air
  5. Homogeneous
    - one visible phase

    Ex) koolaid, air, tea
  6. Heterogeneous
    - two or more visible phases

    Ex) orange juice with pulp
  7.  Solution
    - particles are dissolved in one another NO TYNDALL

    Ex) salt water.
  8. Particle Theory
    1) Matter is made up of tiny particles

    2) The particles in matter are identical

    3) There is space between All the particles.

    4) All particles are attracted to each other.

    5) The particles are always constantly in motion
  9. Physical Change
    a change in which the composition of the substance remains unaltered and no new substances are produced.
  10. Chemical
    Change
    a change in the starting or substances and the production of one or more new substances.
  11. Physical
    property:
    characteristic of a substance that can be determined without changing the composition of that substance.
  12. Chemical
    Property:
    a characteristic of a substance that is determined when the composition of the substance is changed and one or more new substances are produced.
  13. Quantitative
    a numerical observation based onmeasurements or counting.
  14. Qualitative
    a non- numerical observation that describes the qualities of objects or events.
  15. Physical
    properties of METAL
    lustrous, malleable, and ductile.
  16. Chemical
    Families
    Alkali Metals (reactive)

    Alkaline Earth Metals (somewhat reactive)

    Halogens (reactive- found in earth)

    Nobel Gases ( non-reactive/neon signs)
  17. Atomic
    Number
    : the number of protons in an atom's nucleus.
  18. Atomic
    Mass
    the mass of an atomic mass units.
  19. Theories of Atom
    Dalton:
    • - All matter is made up of tiny, indivisible
    • particles called atoms

    - All atoms of an element are identical

    - atoms of different elements are different

    • - Atoms are rearranged to form new substances in
    • chemical reactions, but they are never created or destroyed.
  20. Theories of Atom  Thomson:
    - atoms contain negatively charged electrons

    • - since atoms are neutral, the rest of the atom is
    • a positively charged sphere.

    • - negatively charged electrons ate evenly
    • distributed throughout the atom

    - "plum pudding"
  21. Theories of Atom Rutherford:
    • - centre of the atom has a positive charge (
    • nucleus). Contains most of the atoms mass but occupies a very small space.
    • Nucleus is what made some particles bounce back.

    • - nucleus is surrounded by a cloud of negatively
    • charged electrons

    - most of the atom is empty space.

    - discovered the proton
  22. Theories of Atom Bohr:
    - electrons orbit the nucleus

    • - each electron in an orbit has a definite Amount
    • of energy

    • - electrons cannot be between orbits, but they can
    • jump to and from different orbits. They release energy as light when they jump
    • from different orbits.

    • - each orbit can hold a certain amount of
    • electrons.
  23. Valence
    electrons
    electrons on the last orbit.
  24. Ion
    a particle that has either a positive or negative charge.
  25. Covalent
    bonding:
    a bond formed when two non metal atoms share electrons
  26. Ionic
    bonding:
    chemical link between two atoms caused by the electrostatic force between oppositely-charged ions
  27. Isotope
    an Atom with the same number of protons but different number of neutrons
  28. Testing for Gases Oxygen
    Place a glowing splint into the Gas

    - bursts into flames (+ oxygen)

    - no change (- oxygen)
  29. Testing for Gases Hydrogen
    Place a burning splint into gas

    - burst into flames and POP is heard

    (+ hydrogen)

    - no change (- hydrogen)
  30. Testing for gases Carbon Dioxide
    Place a burning splint into gas

    - flame goes out ( + carbon dioxide)

    - no change (- carbon dioxide)
  31. Static
    electricity
    an imbalance of electric charge on the surface of an object
  32. Current
    electricity
    the controlled flow of electrons through a conductor
  33. Conductor
    a material that lets electrons move easily through it

    (copper wire)
  34. Insulator:
    material that does not easily allow the movement of electrons through it (ceramic)
  35. Lightning
    - can strike up to 15km from where it is raining

    • - Electrical charges are transferred very quickly.
    • ( electrical discharge; example of induction)

    • - excess negative charge at bottom of clouds repel
    • at earths surface
  36. Resistance
    the degree to which a substance opposes the flow of current through it.
  37. Potential
    difference (voltage V):
    thevdifference in electrical potential energy per unit charge measured at two different points; measured in volts
  38. Series
    circuit:
    a circuit in which the loads are connected end to end so that there is only one path for the electrons to flow
  39. Parallel
    circuit:
    a circuit in which the loads are connected in branches do that there are two or more paths for electrons to flow.
  40. Electrode
    metal strips that react with the electrolyte.
  41. Electrolyte:
    a liquid or paste that conducts energy because it contains chemicals that form ions.
  42. Abiotic
    the non living physical and chemical components of an ecosystem (temperature)
  43. Biotic
    components of an ecosystem that are living (bird)
  44. Ecosystem
    All the living organisms and their physical and chemical  environment (pond)
  45. Population
    A group of organisms of one species that interbreed and live in the same place at the same time (e.g. deer population).
  46. Community
    An ecological unit composed of a group of organisms or a population of different species occupying a particular area, usually interacting with each other and their environment. (rainforest)
  47. Producers:
    an organism that makes its own food using the suns energy (plant)
  48. Consumers
    an organism that gets its energy from consuming other organisms
  49. Herbivore
    animal that eats plants (squirrel)
  50. Carnivores
    animal that eat other animals (wolves)
  51. Omnivores:
    animals that eat both plants and animals (humans)
  52. Scavengers:
    animals that eat the remains of dead animals (vultures)
  53. Decomposers
    organisms that break down dead animals (fungi)
  54. Niche
    what it eats, what eats it, where it lives
  55. Trophic
    level
    feeding level of an organism in a food web/chain.

    > producers - first Trophic level

    > herbivores - primary consumers

    • > carnivores/omnivores - secondary and tertiary
    • consumers
  56. Food
    chain:
    sequence of organisms each feeding on the next showing how energy Is transferred from one organism to another

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