English 1302

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English 1302
2012-06-22 00:21:36

Midterm prep
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  1. Alliteration:
    The repetition of the initial consonant sounds of a sequence of words.
  2. Anapestic Meter:
    A meter using feet with two unstressed syllables followed by a stressed syllable.
  3. Apostrophe:
    A figure of speech in which a writer directly addresses an unseen person, force, or personified idea. The term apostrophe derives from the Greek term meaning turning away and often marks a digression.
  4. Assonance:
    A repetition of vowel sounds or patterns in neighboring words. 
  5. Ballad:
     A song or poem that tells a lively or tragic story in simple language using rhyming four-line stanzas and a set meter.
  6. Blank verse:
    Unrhymed iambic pentameter, often used in Shakespeare’s plays or for epic subject matter, as in Milton’s Paradise Lost.
  7. Caesura:
    A pause, usually in the middle of a line, that marks a kind of rhythmic division.
  8. Connotation:
    The associations a word carries beyond its literal meaning. Connotations are formed by the context of the word’s popular usage; for example, green, aside from being a color, connotes money. The opposite of denotation.
  9. Couplet:
    Two lines of poetry forming one unit of meaning. Couplets are often rhymed,strung together without a break, and share the same meter.
  10. Dactylic Meter:
    A meter in which the foot contains a stressed syllable followed by two unstressed syllables.
  11. Denotation:
    The literal meaning of a word. The opposite of connotation. 
  12. Diction:
    An author or character’s distinctive choice of words and styles of expression. 
  13. Dimeter:
    A poetic meter composed of two poetic feet.
  14. Dramatic monologue:
    A poem in which the character addresses another character or the reader. Dramatic monologues are offshoots of the epic form.
  15. Elegy:
    A poem of lamentation memorializing the dead or contemplating some nuance of life’s melancholy. Early Greek elegies employed a fixed form of dactylic hexameter and iambic pentameter couplets.
  16. End-stopped line:
    A line that ends with a full stop or a period.
  17. Figure of speech:
    A technique of using one thing to describe another, often comparing two unlike objects, such as the sun and the face of the beloved, to condense and heighten the effect of language, particularly the effect of imagery or symbolism in a poem.
  18. Foot:
    The smallest unit of measure in poetic meter. A foot usually contains a stressed syllable and one or two unstressed syllables. Meter is formed when the same foot is repeated more than once. For example, in iambic pentameter, iambic refers to the type of foot (an unstressed syllable followed by a stressed syllable), while pentameter tells us that there are five (pent) iambic feet in each line. 
  19. Free verse:
    Poetry in which the poet does not adhere to a preset metrical or rhyme scheme. Free verse has become increasingly prevalent since the nineteenth century, when it was first used. (aka open form)
  20. Haiku:
    A poetic form containing seventeen syllables in three lines of five, seven, and five syllables each.
  21. Heptameter: 
    A poetic meter that consists of seven feet in each line
  22. Hexameter:
    A poetic meter that consists of six feet in each line. If the six feet are iambic, the line is known as an alexandrine, which was the preferred line of French epic poetry.
  23. Hyperbole (overstatement):
    A type of figurative speech that uses verbal exaggeration to make a point.
  24. Iamb:
    A poetic foot consisting of an unstressed syllable followed by a stressed syllable.
  25. Image:
    A sensory impression created by language. Not all images are visual pictures; an image can appeal to any of the five senses, emotions, or the intellect.
  26. Imagery:
    Using images to communicate to the reader.
  27. Lyric:
    A short poem with a central pictorial image written in an uninflected (direct and personal) voice.
  28. Metaphor:
    A close comparison of two dissimilar things that creates a fusion of identity between the things that are compared. A metaphor joins two dissimilar things without using words such as like or as. While a simile suggests that X is like Y a metaphor states that X is Y.
  29. Meter:
    A measure of verse, based on regular patterns of sound.
  30. Metonymy:
    A figure of speech that uses an identifying emblem or closely associated object to represent another object. For example, the phrase the power of the purse makes little sense literally, (there is no purse that has power), but in the metonymical sense, purse stands for money.
  31. Monometer:
    A poetic meter comprised of one poetic foot.
  32. Octameter:
    A poetic meter that consists of eight feet in each line.
  33. Ode:
    An elevated, formal lyric poem often written in ceremony to someone or to an abstract subject. In Greek tragedy, a song and dance performed by the Chorus between episodia.
  34. Onomatopoeia:
    The use of words that imitate the sounds they refer to, such as buzz or pop.
  35. Paradox:
    Seemingly contradictory statements that, when closely examined, have a deeper, sometimes complicated, meaning.
  36. Pastoral poetry:
    A variety of poem in which life in the countryside, mainly among shepherds, is glorified and idealized.
  37. Pentameter:
    A poetic meter that consists of five feet in each line.
  38. Personification:
    A figure of speech in which a writer ascribes human traits or behavior to something inhuman.
  39. Prosody:
    The analysis of a poem’s rhythm and metrical structures.
  40. Pyrrhic foot:
    A poetic foot characterized by two unstressed syllables.
  41. Quatrain:
    A four line stanza. Quatrains are the most popular stanzaic form in English poetry because they are easily varied in meter, line strength, and rhyme scheme.
  42. Refrain:
    A line of stanza that is represented at regular intervals in a poem or song. 
  43. Rhyme:
    The echoing repetition of sounds in the end syllables of words, often (though not always) at the end of a line of poetry.
  44. Rhythm:
    The sequence of stressed and unstressed sounds in a poem.
  45. Run-on line:
    A line of poetry that, when read, does not come to a natural conclusion where the line breaks. (Enjambment)
  46. Satire:
    An artistic critique, sometimes heated, on some aspect of human immorality or absurdity.
  47. Scansion:
    The process of determining the metrical pattern of a line of poetry by marking its stresses and feet.
  48. Simile:
    A direct comparison of two dissimilar things using the words like or as.
  49. Situational irony:
    A situation portrayed in a poem when what occurs is the opposite or very different from what’s expected to occur.
  50. Sonnet:
    A poem of fourteen lines of iambic pentameter in a recognizable pattern of rhyme. Sonnets contain a volta, of turn, in which the last lines resolve or change direction from the controlling idea of the preceding lines.
  51. Spondee:
    A poetic foot characterized by two stressed syllables.
  52. Stanza:
    A unit of two or more lines, set off by a space, often sharing the same rhythm and meter. 
  53. Symbol:
    Any object, image, character, or action that suggests meaning beyond the everyday literal level. 
  54. Synecdoche:
    A figure of speech that uses a piece or part of a thing to represent the thing in its entirety. For example in the Biblical saying that man does not live by bread alone, bread stands for the larger concept of food or physical substance.
  55. Tercet:
    A group of three lines of poetry. Terza rima: A tercet fixed form featuring the interlocking rhyme scheme aba, bcb, ded, etc.
  56. Tetrameter:
    A poetic meter that contains four feet in each line. 
  57. Tone:
    The author’s attitude toward his or her characters or subject matter.
  58. Trimeter:
    A poetic meter that contains three feet in each line.
  59. Triplet (tercet):
    A tercet of three rhymed lines.
  60. Trochee:
    A poetic foot consisting of a stressed syllable followed by an unstressed syllable. The opposite of an iamb, and so sometimes called an “inverted foot,” often beginning a line of iambic pentameter.
  61. Understatement:
    A purposeful underestimation of something, used to emphasize its actual magnitude. 
  62. Verbal irony:
    A statement in which the stated meaning is very different (sometimes opposite) from the implied meaning.