MANA 3335 Test 2

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  1. The way in which factors such as skills, abilities, personalities, perceptions, attitudes, values and ethics differ from one idividual to another
    Individual differences
  2. The psychological approach to understanding human behavior that involves knowing something about the person and situation
    Interactional Psychology
  3. A relatively stable set of characteristics that influence an individual's behavior
  4. A personality theory that advocates breaking down behavior patterns into a series of observable traits in order to understand human behavior
    trait theory
  5. the broad theory that describes personality as a composite of an individual's psychological process
    Integrative Approach
  6. A situation that overwhelms the effects of individual personalities by providing strong cues for appropriate behavior
    strong situation
  7. an individual's generalized belief about internal control (self-control) vs. external control (control by the situation or by others)
    locus of control
  8. An individual's general belief that he or she is capable of meeting job demands in a wide variety of situations 
    General self-efficacy
  9. an individual's general feeling of self-worth
  10. The extent to which people base their behavior cues from other people and situations
  11. An individual's tendency to accentuate the positive aspects of herself, others and the world in general
    positive affect
  12. An individual's tendency to accentuate the negative aspects of himself, others and the world in general
    Negative Affect
  13. A personality test that elicits and individual's response to abstract stimuli
    Projective Test
  14. personality assessments that involve observing an individual's behavior in a controlled situation
    behavioral measures 
  15. A common personality assessment that involves an individual's responses to a seies of questions
    self-report questionnaire
  16. An instrument developed to measure Carl Jung's theory of individual differences
    Myers-Briggs Type Indicatoro (MBTI) Instrument
  17. Being energized by interaction with other people
  18. Being energized by time alone
  19. Gathering information through a "sixth sense" and focusing on what could be
  20. Gathering information through the 5 sensesand focusing on what ACTUALLY exists
  21. Making decisions in a logical, objective fashion
  22. Making decisions in a personal, value oriented way
  23. Preferring closure and completion in making decisions
  24. Preferring to explore many alternatives with flexibility on spontaneity
  25. The process of interpreting info about another person
    social perception
  26. the assumption that an individual's behavior is accounted for by the situation 
    discounting people
  27. the tendency to select information that supports our individual viewpoints while discounting information that threatens our viewpoints 
    selective perception
  28. a generalization about a group of people
  29. forming lasting opinions about an individual based on the initial perceptions
    first-impression error
  30. overestimating the number of people who share our beliefs, values and behaviors
  31. allowing expectations about people to affect our interaction with them in such a way that those expectations are fulfilled
    self-fulfilling prophecy
  32. the process by which individuals try to control the impressions others have on them
    impression management 
  33. a theory that explains how individuals pinpoint the causes of their own and others' behavior 
    attribution theory
  34. the tendency to make attributions to internal causes when focusing on someone else's behavoir
    fundamental attribution error
  35. the tendency to attribute one's own successes to internal causes and one's failures to external causes
    self-serving bias
  36. a psychological tendency expressed by evaluating something with a degree of favor or disfavor
  37. the emotional component of an attitude
  38. a state of tension produced when an individual experiences conflict between attitudes and behavior
    cognitive dissonance 
  39. the process of deriving attitudes from family, peers, religious orgs, and cuolture
    social learning
  40. a pleasurable or positive emotional state resulting from the appraisal of one's job or job experiences 
    job satisfaction
  41. behavior that is above and beyond the call of duty
    organizational citizenship behavior (OCB)
  42. any voluntary counterproductive behavior that violates organizational norms and causes some degree of harm to an organization functioning
    workplace deviance behavior (WDB)
  43. the strength of an individual's identification with an organization 
    organizational commitment 
  44. organizational commitment based on an individual's desire to remain in an organization.
    affective commitment
  45. organizational commitment based on the fact that an individual cannot afford to leave
    continuance commitment 
  46. organizational commitment based on an individual's perceived obligation to remain with an organization.  
    normative commitment 
  47. mental states that include feelings, physiological changes and the inclination to act
  48. a dynamic process through which the emotions of one person are transferred to another, either consciously or unconsciously, through verbal channels
    emotional contagion
  49. acting in ways consistent with one's personal values and the commonly held values of the organization and society
    ethical behavior
  50. enduring beliefs that a specific mode of conduct or end state of existence is personally or socially preferable to an opposite or converse mode of conduct or end state of existence 
  51. values that shape the acceptable behaviors that can be used to achieve some goal or end state
    instrumental values
  52. values that shape the acceptable behaviors that can be used to achieve some goal or end state
    instrumental values
  53. values that influence the goals to be achieved or the end states of existence
    terminal values
  54. a personality characteristic involving one's willingness to do whatever it takes to get one's own way
  55. The process of moving through stages of maturity with regard to making ethical decisions
    cognitive moral development
  56. the successful implementation of creative ideas in organizations
    organizational innovation
  57. the production of novel and useful ideas
  58. a difference in the form, quality, or condition of an organization over time
    organizational change
  59. a cycle that begins with the birth of a new technology and ends when that new technology reaches its limits and is replaced by a newer, substantially, better technology
    technology cycle
  60. pattern of technological innovation characterized by slow initial progress, then rapid process, then slow process again as a technology matures and reaches its limits
    S-Curve pattern of innovation
  61. patterns of innovation over time that can create sustainable competitive advantage
    innovation streams
  62. when a scientific advance or a unique combination of existing technologies creates a significant breakthrough in performance or function
    technological discontinuity
  63. the phase of a technology cycle characterized by technological subsitution and design competition
    discontinuous change
  64. the purchase of new technologies to replace older ones
    technological substitution
  65. competition between old and new technologies to establish a new technological standard or dominant design
    design competition 
  66. new technological design or process that becomes the accepted market standard
    dominant design
  67. when a new dominant design (ie: significantly better technology) prevents a company from competitively selling its products or makes it diffcult to do so
    technological lockout
  68. the phase of a technology cycle in shich companies innovate by lowering costs and improving the functioning and performance of the dominant technological design
    Incremental change
  69. work-place cultures in which workers perceive that:
    new ideas are welcomed, valued and encouraged
    creative work environments
  70. a psychologial state of effortlessness in which you became completely absorbed in what you're doing and time seems to pass quickly
  71. An approach to innovation that assumes a highly uncertain environment and uses intuition, flexible options and hands-on experience to reduce uncertainty and accelerate learning and understanding
    experiential approach to innovation
  72. a cycle repetition in which a company tests a prototype of a new product or service, improves that design and then builds / tests the improved prototype
    design iteration
  73. a full-scale, working model that is being tested for desighn, function and reliability.
    product prototype
  74. the systematic comparison of different product designs or design iteriations
  75. formal project review points used to assess progress and performance
  76. work teams composed of people from different departments
    multifunctional teams
  77. an approach to innovation that assumes that incremental innovation that assumes that incremental innovation can be planned using a series of steps and that compressing those steps can speed innovation
    compression approach to innovation
  78. change based on incremental improvements to a dominant technological design such that the improved technology is fully backward compatible with the older technology
    generational change
  79. a large decrease in organizational performance that occurs when companies don't anticipate, recognize, neutralize, or adopt to the internal or external pressures that threaten survival
    organizational decline
  80. forces that produce differences in the form, quality or condition of an organization over time
    change forces
  81. forces that support the existing state of conditions in organizations
    resistance forces
  82. opposition to change resulting from self-interest, misunderstanding and distrust, and general intolerance to change
    resistance to change
  83. getting the people affected by change to believe that change is needed 
  84. the process used to get workers and managers to change their behavior and work practices
  85. change created quickly by focusing on the measurement and improvement of results 
    results-driven change
  86. getting the people affected by change to believe that change is needed
  87. the process used to get workers and managers to change their behavior and work practices
    change intervention
  88. supporting and reinforcing new changes to they stick
  89. using formal power and authority to force others to change 
  90. change created quickly by focusing on the measurement and improvement of results 
    results-driven change
  91. a 3 day meeting in which managers and employees from different levels and parts of an org quickly generate and act on solutions to specific business problems
    General Electric workout
  92. a philosophy and collection of planned change interventions designed to improve an organization's long-term health and performance 
    organizational development
  93. the person formally in charge of guiding a change effort
    change agent
  94. a small number of people with complementarty skills who hold themselves mutually accountable for pursuing a common purpose, achieving performance goals, and improving interdependent work processes 
    work team
  95. training team members to do all or most of the jobs performed by the other team members 
  96. behavior in which team members withold their efforts and fail to perform their share of the work
    social loafing
  97. a group composed of 2 or more people who work together to achieve a shared goal
    traditional work group
  98. a team that provides advice or makes suggestions to management concerning specific issues
    employee involvement team
  99. a group that has the authority to make decisions and solve problems related to the major tasks of producing a product or service
    semi-autonomous work group
  100. a team that manages and contols all of the major tasks of producing a product or service 
    self-managing team
  101. a team that has the characteristics of self-managing teams but also controls team design, work tasks, and team membership
    self-designing team
  102. a team composed of employees from different functional areas of the org
    cross-functional team
  103. a team composed of geographically or organizationally dispersed coworkers who use telcommunication and information technologies to accomplish an organizational task
    virtual team
  104. a team created to complete specific, one time projects or tasks within a limited time
    project team
  105. informally agreed upon standards that regulate team behavior
  106. the extent to which team members are attracted to a team and motivated to remain in it
  107. the first stage of team development in which team members meet each other, form inital impressions and begin to establish team norms
  108. the 2nd stage of team dev. characterized by conflict and disagreement, in which team members disagree over what the team should do and how it should do it
  109. the 3rd stage of team dev in which the team members begin to settle into their roles, group cohesion grows, and positive team norms develop
  110. the 4th and final stage of team dev.  performance improves because the team has matured into an effective, fully functioning team
  111. the ability to change organizational structures, policies and practices in order to meet stretch goals
    structural accomodation
  112. the ability to make changes without first getting approval from managers or other parts of an org
    bureaucratic immunity 
  113. the degree to which a person believes that people should be self-sufficient and that loyalty to oneself is more important than loyalty to oneself is more important than loyalty to team or company 
  114. the average level of ability, experience, personality, or any other factor of a team
    team level
  115. the variances or differences in ability, experience personality or any other factor of the team
    team diversity
  116. sills such as listening, communicating, questioning and providing feedback that enable people to have effective working relationships with others
    interpersonal skills
  117. compensation system that pays employees for acquiring additional skills or knowledge 
    skill-based pay
  118. a compensation system in which companies share the financial value of performance gains, such as productivity, cost savings or quality with their workers
  119. the process of finding, developing, and keeping the right people to form a qualified workforce 
    Human Resource Management (HRM)
  120. an exception in employment law that permits sex, age, religion and the like to be used when making employment decisions but only if they are "reasonably necessary to the normal operation of that particular business"; strictly monitored by the EEOC
    Bona fide occupational qualification (BFOQ)
  121. intentional discrimination that occurs when people are purposely not given the same hiring, promotion or membership opportunities because of their race, color, sex, age, ethnic group, national origin or religious groups
    disparate treatment
  122. unintentional discrimination (or any other employment decision) that occurs when members of a particular race, sex or ethnic group are unintentionally harmed or disadvantaged because they are hired, promoted or trained at substantially lower rates than others 
    Adverse Impact
  123. a rule of thumb used by the courts and the EEOC to determine whether there is evidence of adverse impact; a violation of this rule occurs when the selection rate for a protected group is less than 80 percent or 4/5  of the selection rate for a non-protected group
    four-fifths (80%) rule
  124. a form of discrimination in which unwelcome sexual advances, requests for sexual favors or other verbal or physical conduct of a sexual nature occurs while performing one's job
    sexual harassment
  125. form of sexual harassment in which employment outcomes, such as hiring, promotion, or simply keeping one's job depend on whether an individual submits to sexual harassment
    Quid pro quo sexual harassment
  126. a form of sexual harassment in which unwelcome and demanding sexually related behavior creates an intimidating and offensive work environment 
    hostile work environment
  127. the process of developing a pool of qualified job applicants
  128. a purposeful, systematic process for collecting info on the important work-related aspects of a job
    job analysis
  129. a written description of the basic tasks, duties and responsibilities required of an employee holding a particular job
    job description
  130. a written summary of the qualifications needed to successfully perfom a particular job
    job specifications
  131. the process of developing a pool of qualified applicants from people who already work for that company
    internal recruiting
  132. the process of developing a pool of qualified applicants outsie the company 
    external recruiting 
  133. the process of gathering info about job applicants to decide who should be offered a job 
  134. the process of determining how well a selection test or procedure predits future job performance; the better or more accurate the predication of future job performance, the more valid a test is said to be
  135. sources such as previous employers, coworkers who can provide job-related info about job candidates
    employment references 
  136. procedures used to verify truthfulness and accuracy of information provided by applicant to possibly uncover negative, job-related background info not provided by the applicant
    background checks
  137. tests that measure the extent to which an applicant possess the particular king of ability needed to do a job well
    specific ability tests (aptitude tests)
  138. tests that measure the extent to whic applicants have abilities in perceptual speed, verbal comprehension, numerical aptitude, general reasoning and spatial aptitude 
    cognitive ability tests
  139. extensive surveys that ask applicants questions about their personal backgrounds and life experiences 
    Biographical data (biodata)
  140. tests that require applicants to perform tasks that are actually done on the job
    work sample tests
  141. a series of managerial simulations, graded by trained observers, that is used to determine applicants' capability for managerial work
    assessment center
  142. a selection tool in which company reps ask job applicants job-related questions to determine if they are qualified for the job
  143. interviews in which interviewers are free to to ask applicants anyting they want
    unstructured interviews
  144. interviews in which all applicants are asked the same set of standardized questions, usually including situational, behavioral, background and job-knowledge
    structured interviews
  145. developing the skills, experience and knowledge employees need to perform their jobs or improve their performance
  146. the process of identifying and prioritizing the learning needs of employees
    needs assessment
  147. the process of assessing how well employees are doing their jobs
    performance appraisal 
  148. measures of job performance that are easily and directly counted or quantified 
    objective performance measures 
  149. a rating scale that indicates the frequency with which workers perform specific behaviors that are representative of the job dimeensions critical to successful job performance 
    Behavioral Observation Scale (BOS)
  150. training performance appraisal process in which feedback is obtained from the boss, subordinates, peers and coworkers and employees themselves
    360-degree feedback
  151. the financial and nonfinancial rewards that an organization gives empolyees in exchange for their work
  152. the voluntary or involuntary loss of an employee
    employee separation
  153. a process that determines the worth of each job in a company by evaluating the market value of the knowledge, skills and requirements needed to perform it 
    job evaluation 
  154. a compensation system in which employees are paid a set rate for each item they produce
  155. a compensation system where employees earn a percentage of each sale they make
  156. a compensation system where the company pays a percentage of its profits to employees in addition to their regular compensation
    profit sharing
  157. a compensation system that awards employees shares of company stockin addition to their regular compensation
    Employee stock ownership plan (ESOP)
  158. a compensation system that gives employees the right to purchase shares of stock at a set price, even if the value of the stock increases above that price 
    stock options
  159. a legal doctrine that requires employers to have job related reasons to terminate employees 
    wrongful discharge 
  160. the planned elimination of jobs in a company
  161. employment counseling services offered to employees who are losing their jobs because of downsizing
    outplacement services
  162. programs that offer financial benefits to employees to encourage them to retire early 
    Early Retirement Incentive Programs (ERIPs)
  163. employees transition to retirement by working reduced hours over a period of time before completely retiring
    Phased retirement
  164. loss of employees who voluntarily choose to leave the company
    employee turnover
  165. loss of poor-performing employees who voluntarily choose to leave a company
    functional turnover
  166. loss of high-performing employees who voluntarily choose to leave a company
    dysfunctional turnover 
  167. a variety of demographic, cultural, and personal differences among an org's employees and customers 
  168. purposeful steps taken by an org to create employment opportunities for minorities and women
    Affirmative Action
  169. differences such as personality and attitudes that are communicated through verbal and nonverbal behaviors and are recognized only through extended interaction with others 
    deep-level diversity
  170. differences such as age, sex, race, ethnicity and physical disabilities that are observable, easy to measure and typically can't be changed.
    surface-level diversity
  171. the degree to which group members are psychologically attracted to working with each other to accomplish a common objective
    social integration 
  172. treating people differently because of their sex
    sex discrimination
  173. treating people differently because of their age
    (ie: firing, hiring and compensation decisions)
    age discrimination
  174. the invisible barrier that prevents women and minorities from advancing to the top jobs in organizations
    glass ceiling
  175. treating people differently because of their race or ethnicity
    racial or ethnic discrimiation
  176. a mental or physical impairment that substantially limits one or more major life activities
  177. treating people differently because of their disability
    disability discrimination
  178. the tendency to respond to situations and events in a predetermined manner
  179. the relatively stable set of behaviors, attitudes and emotions displayed over time that makes people different from each other
  180. the degree to which someone is active, assertive, gregarious,  sociable, talkative and energized by others
  181. the degree to which someone is not angry, depressed, anxious, emotional, insecure, or excitable
    emotional stability
  182. the degree to which someone is cooperative, polite, flexible, forgiving, good-natured, tolerant and trusting
  183. the degree to shich someone is organized, hardworking, responsible, persevering, thorough and achievement oriented
  184. the degree to which someone is curious, broadminded, and open to new ideas, things, and experiences; is spontaneous; and has a high tolerance for ambiguity 
    openness to experience
  185. a work environment in which 

    1.  All members are empowered to contribute in a way that maximizes the benefits of the organization, customers and themselves

    2.  the individuality of each member is respected by not segmenting or polarizing people on a basis of their relationship in a particular group 
    Organizational plurality
  186. training that is designed to raise employees' awareness of diversity issues and to challenge the undertlying assumptions or stereotypes they may have about others
    awareness training
  187. training that teaches employees the practical skills they need for managing a diverse work force, such as flexibility and adaptability, negotiation, problem solving and conflict resolution
    Skills-based diversity training
  188. formal assessments that measure employy and management attitudes, investigate the extent to which people are advantaged or disadvantaged with respecct to hiring and promotions, and review companies' diversity-related policies and procedures 
    diversity audits
  189. a mentoring program in which people of different cultural backgrounds, sexes, or races/ethnicities are paired so that they can get to know each other and change any stereotypical beliefs and attitudes
    diversity pairing
Card Set:
MANA 3335 Test 2
2012-06-22 13:15:59
Introduction Organizational Behavior Management MGMT MANA 3335 University Houston

Introduction to Organizational Behavior and Management MGMT MANA 3335 University of Houston
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