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What are the functions of CYTOTOXIC T-Cells?
- Transplanted tissue (Graft Rejection)
- They protect us from diseases by killing:
- - Virus infected cells
- - Fungi, Protozoans, Helminths
- - Cancer cells
Inactivated exotoxins that are used a vaccines are called ?
What are the funtions or characteristics of ANTIBODIES ?
- - They Neutralize toxins
- - They Inactivate viruses
- - They Fix complements
- - They carry out Opsonization
Binding to botulism toxin so it can no longer specifically bind to motor neurons - best describe a function of ____?
During embryotic development, genetic recombination in B cells produces antibody genes - signifies ___?
A statement about ANITIBODY GENES
To make monoclonal antibodies, a B-cell is fused with a cancer cell to form a hybridoma. This signifies ___?
An attenuated microbe used as a vaccine refers to ____?
A live Non-Virulent Pathogen
Which of the immunities have NO Memory or NOT ACTIVE ?
NATURALLY & ARTIFICIALLY ACQUIRED, PASSIVE Immunities.
Which of the immunities have MEMORY or is ACTIVE ?
NATURALLY & ARTIFICIALLY ACQUIRED, ACTIVE Immunities.
What stimulates the immune system to develope a specific acquired immunity?
This vaccine(s) is /are produced by inactivating toxins with Formaldehydes to produce Toxoids ?
DIPHTHERIA & TETANUS Vaccines
This immunity occurs when a patient is given a gamma globin injection?
-E.g: A snake bite victim could be given an injection containing anti-venom gamma globins to neutralize the poison.
-Not active & No memory
ARTIFICIAL PASSIVE IMMUNITY
This immunity occurs when a mother gives her futus IgG through the placenta or IgA from her breast milk?
- Not active or No Memory
NATURAL PASSIVE IMMUNITY
This occurs when someone comes incontact with a disease and then develops their own Cytotoxic T-cells and antibodies to fight the disease causing agent.
-Immunity from chicken pox that results from infection and diseas caused by chicken pox virus.
- Has memory or is Active.
NATURAL ACTIVE IMMUNITY
This immunity occurs when someone is immunized?
- A vaccine is given to a patient and the patient develops their own Cytotoxic T-cells and antibodies.
- Has memory or is Active
ARTIFICIAL ACTIVE IMMUNITY
This is an acellular vaccine made from the capsular material of Streptococcus Pneumoniae?
PNEUMOCOCCAL PNEUMONIA VACCINE
This vaccine has been made to produce viral subunits, it vaccines against Hepatitis B & Human Papilliomavirus?
- uses genetic engineering technique
- A single gene from the viral genome is placed in the cloning host (E-coli) and the protein product of the gene is produced by the cloning host to be used as the vaccine?
RECOMBINANT DNA TECHNOLOGY VACCINE
This vaccine is made with the use of a closely related microbe called the Vaccina Virus?
SMALL POX VACCINE
- Patients recieve small pox vaccine made from cow pox virus.
This vaccine contains attenuated microbes (live bacteria or active viruses)?
- The pathogens in the vaccine are mutated to be Non-virulent ?
TUBERCULOSIS & MMR VACCINES
A type of vaccine that is use to kill bacteria?
- When this vaccine is injected, the pathogen cannot divide/replicate, but the host's immune system will develope immunity to the pathogen.?
E.g: influenza vaccines = inactivate virus
What are GAMMA GLOBULINS?
A spot on an antigen where an antibody binds to ____?
-When antibodies bind to a site on an antigen, this site is know as ____?
- Regions that actually binds to B & T cell receptors are call ____?
- The immunological active region on a complex is know as ___?
This substance is capable of inducing a specific immune response ?
Molecules that are too small to illicit an immune response?
- This molecule is the size of a single antigenis determinant?
- They can be boded to carrier molecules such tht they are injected in mice; and antibodies will be fored in response of them/it?
E.g: Poison Ivy
An immunity that is long term, powerful, very specific, develops during an infection with specific disease causing agents OR as a result of vaccination?
- E.g: After a child is born, they have the ability to produce 1000s of different antibodies?
ACQUIRED / ADAPTIVE IMMUNITY
This type of immunity has the mechanism to differentiat self from Non-Self ?
What are Self Recognition Markers?
MHC set of genes
The genes that CODE FOR MACKERS on most of your cell plasma membranes and that plays an important role in grafted organs being rejected or accepted are call ___?
- This genes marks on most cells(nuclated cells) as belonging to the body (display self)?
- Each person has a unique set of this genes?
MHC Class 1
The gene that CODE FOR RECEPTORS on Marcrophages & B-cells, and display foreignness?
- They act as antigen presenting cells?
MCH Class 2
Molecules that stimulate an immune response from B & T cells are refered to as ____?
They have the ff xtics:
- They're foreign to the body
- They're of high molecular weight
- They react with specific antibodies
- They're Proteins or Carbohydrates ( mostly polypetitides, some polysaccharides, lipopolysaccharides)
This specialized Marcrophages found in lymph nodes presents ____________ by:
- activivating Helper T-cells
- partially activates cytotoxic T-cells
ANTIGEN - PRESENTING CELLS
The Cell-mediated Immune System response to what cells?
- Activated Cytotoxic T-cells products like:
- - Clone of killer T-cells
- -Memory T-cells
What is responsible for presenting cellular proteins on the cell surface?
What do antigens use to determine transplant suitability?
A system that allows your immune system to differentiate self fron non-self?
MHC (Major Histocompatibility Complex)
What are examples (products) od Cytotoxic T-Cells?
- 1. Clone of Killer T-cells
- 2. Memory T-cells
This type of Immune system is composed of antibodies in BLOOD, Lymph Fluid, Mucous and Milk?
- HUMORAL IMMUNE SYSTEM
- ANTIBODY MEDIATED IMMUNE SYSTEM
Cell-Mediated Immune system involves which cells?
Cytotoxic T-cells killing virus infected cells and Cancer cells.
- E.g: clone of killer T-cells and Memory T-cells
Which cells wait in the LYMPH NODES for a later infection of the same pathogen?
MEMORY B & T CELLS
What cells are responsible for HUMORAL or ANTIBODY MEDIATED immune system?
E.g: Clone of plasma cells and Memory B-cells
What is the xteristics of MEMORY B-CELLS?
- They make the host to later produce:
- - Faster antibodies
- - High antibody titer
- They make antibodies to persist longer, hence better(stronger) immunity.
A Y-shaped protien with 2 specific antigen binding sites is call ___?
Name 5 classes of Antibodies / Immunoglobulins?
- - IgD(1); B-cell receptors
- - IgA(2); Mucous membranes, siliva, mother's milk
- - IgM(5); First responder
- - IgE(1); Bound to Basophils, allergy + worms
- - IgG (1); Major serum antibody, crosses placenta