french exam study.txt

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french exam study.txt
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  1. What is the difference between indicatif and subjonctif?
    • - Indicative mood is used for an action not dependent upon an opinion or condition
    • - Indicative implies a truth, fact, or probability
    • - Subjunctive is used to express subjective idea, opinion, or condition
    • - Implies contrary to fact, possible but not probable
  2. How is the regular form of subjonctif formed?
    • - Drop the �Cent of the ��ils�� form
    • - Adding e, es, e, ions, iez, ent
  3. What verbs have double ��i�� in subjonctif form? Which pronouns?
    • - Verbs that end in ��ier��
    • - Verbs ��rire�� and ��sourire��
    • - Only in ��nous�� and ��vous�� forms
  4. What are the ��ils�� base of these verbs? Ouvrir, courir, rire, conclure, romper, batter, metre, partir, conna?tre, plaire, se taire, lire, dire, conduire, traduire, dormer, server, suivre, vivre, vaincre, craindre, joinder, peindre, s��asseoir?
    - Ouvrent, courent, rient, concluent, rompent, batten, mettent, partent, connaissent, plaisent, se taisent, lisent, dissent, conduisent, traduisent, dorment, servent, suivent, vivent, vainquent, craignent, joingnent, peingnent, s��asseyent
  5. When do verbs change ��y�� to ��i�� in nous and vous form?
    • - When verbs end in ��i�� in ��ils�� form, change to ��y�� in nous and vous
    • - Employer, envoyer, nettoyer, essayer, payer, croire, voir
  6. What do verbs with �� in infinitive do in nous and vous form, in other forms?
    • - Keep �� in nous and vous form
    • - Change to �� in other forms
    • - C��der, compl��ter, consid��rer, esp��rer, pr��f��rer, r��p��ter
  7. What do verbs with e in infinitive do in nous and vous form, in other forms?
    • - Change to �� in other forms
    • - Keep e in nous and vous form
    • - Acheter, appeler, jeter, lever, mener
  8. What do verbs with double consonant do in nous and vous form? In other form?
    • - Keep double consonant in other forms
    • - Change to one consonant in nous and vous form
  9. What do verbs with variable bases do in nous and vous form? In other form?
    • - Have the same base as ��nous�� form of indicative
    • - As ��mourons -> mourions; recevons, recevions, buvons, buvions��
  10. What are the irregular verbs of subjonctif?
    - Avoir, ��tre, pouvoir, faire, savoir, vouloir, aller, valoir, falloir, peuvoir
  11. How are each conjugated?
    • - Aie, aies, ait, ayons, ayez, aient
    • - Sois, sois, soit, soyons, soyez, soient
    • - Puisse, puisses, puisse, puissions, puissiez, puissent
    • - Fasse, fasses, fasse, fassions, fassiez, fassent
    • - Sache, saches, sache, sachions, sachiez, sachent
    • - Veuille, veuilles, veuille, voulions, vouliez, veuillent
    • - Aille, ailles, aille, allions, alliez, aillent
    • - Vaille, vailles, vaille, valions, valiez, vaillent
    • - Faille (il only)
    • - Pleuve (il only)
  12. What are the 6 scenarios where we should use subjonctif?
    • 1. Wish, preference, or desire (vouloir, pr��f��rer, d��sirer)
    • 2. Doubt (douter)
    • 3. Denial (nier)
    • 4. Emotions and feelings (��tre ____, avoir _____, etc)
    • 5. Order (commander, exiger, ordonner)
    • 6. Refusal or permission (permettre, consenter, d��fender, emp��cher)
  13. What kind of expression uses subjonctif?
    • - Any expression that express opinion or emotions
    • - Unless the opinion is a general opinion, such as ��one should not do this�� (without a subject in the sentence)
  14. Which expressions use indicative?
    • - Showing probability and truth
    • - Certain, s?r, probable, ��vident, exact, clair, vrai, vraisemblable, it para?t que
  15. What about the two using???semble???
    • - Il semble que = subjonctif
    • - Il me semble que = indicative
  16. What are the exceptions with expression with certainty
    • - Certain, s?r, probable, croire, penser are followed by indicative
    • - Unless they are in a negative or in a question
  17. What subjunctives with subordinate conjunctions require indicative?
    • - Aussit?t que, d��s que, apr��s que, pendant que, parce que
    • - All the other ones with subordinate conjunctions are subjuctive
  18. What are the exceptions to the rule just mentioned
    - De mani��re que, de fa?on que, de sorte que are followed by indicative when the result is already accomplished and irreversible deed/fact
  19. How are possessive pronouns formed?
    • 1. Le/la/les, according to the object
    • 2. Mien, tien, sien, n?tre, v?tre, leur, according to the subject
    • 3. Make the subject agree with the object
  20. What happens when the subject is infinitive?
    • - Such as on, personne, tout le monde, chacun
    • - Use different forms of ??sien??
  21. What if a plural object is modified by chacun?
    - Object agrees with subject
  22. What are demonstrative pronouns?
    • - Means this one, that one, these, those
    • - Celui, celle, ceux, celles
  23. How can ��celui�� be used?
    • - When followed by a relative pronoun, means ��the one��, ��the ones��, ��he (she) who��, ��these�� or ��those��
    • - Followed by ��de�� can indicate possession
    • - To compare, these and those, with ��celui-ci�� and ��celles-l����, ��celui-ci�� = latter, ??celui-l��???= former
  24. What are relative pronouns used for?
    - To introduce a clause that modifies a noun
  25. What is qui used for?
    • - Refers to the subject of the clause, may be person or thing
    • - Followed by a verb
  26. What is que used for?
    • - Refers to the direct object of the clause, may be person or things
    • - Followed by the subject, or not a verb
  27. What is o�� used for?
    - To indicate place or time
  28. When are ��ce qui�� and ��ce dont�� used?
    - When there are no antecedent
  29. What relative pronouns can be used for prepositions other than ��de��?
    • - Qui
    • - Lequel, laquelle, lesquels, lesquelles
  30. When is qui used?
    • - ��to whom��, ��for whom��
    • - Only used for people
  31. When is lequel, laquelle, lesquels, lesquelles, used?
    • - ??for which, infront of which??, etc
    • - Must agree with the antecedent/subject
  32. What 2 words must require lequel instead of qui or don��t?
    - Entre, parmi
  33. When the preposition is �� and is followed by lequel, it changes to?
    - Auquel, �� laquelle, auxquels, auxquelles
  34. When is dont used?
    • - When the preposition is ��de��
    • - Used to replace duquel and its forms
    • - Means whose, of which, of whom
  35. What can dont not be followed by?
    - Cannot be followed by possessive adjective if it is used as ��whose��, must be ��les�� instead of ��ses
  36. What can dont not be used for?
    • - Only when it follows the noun that it refers to
    • - Not used when the noun is followed by prepositional phrase
    • - Such as ��subject�� + ��preposition�� + ��subject�� and then don��t
    • - Must use de plus lequel
    • - Must agree with the first subject
    • - ��subject avec la soeur duquel��
  37. What words require ??dont???
    • - Avoir envie de
    • - Avoir peur de
    • - Avoir besoin de
    • - Avoir honte de
    • - ��tre amoreux de
    • - ��tre fier de
    • - D��cider de
    • - Finir de
    • - Accepter de
    • - Oublier de
    • - Parler de
    • - Remercier de
    • - R��ver de
    • - Refuser de
    • - S��inqui��ter de
    • - Se souvenir de
    • - S��excuser de
  38. What words require ??��???
    • - Dire ��
    • - ��crire ��
    • - Parler ��
    • - R��pondre ��
    • - S��int��resser ��
    • - Telephone ��
  39. Quoi is used afer
    • - S��agit de quoi
    • - Penser �� quoi
    • - ��crire sur quoi
  40. How is the present participle formed?
    • - Dropping ons of nous form
    • - Adding ant
  41. What are the irregular forms of present participle?
    • - Avoir �C ayant
    • - ��tre �C ��tant
    • - Savoir �C sachant
  42. How can present particpes be used?
    • 1. As adjective, it modifies a noun; must agree with the noun it modifies
    • 2. Express actions that take place at the same time as the action of the principal verb
    • 3. Cause, (since he is��)
  43. When is present participle used?
    - After en (by, while, upon, although)
  44. When is ��en�� not used?
    • - After commencer and finir (use par and infinitive)
    • - After s��amuser (use �� and infinitive)
  45. Without these prepositions, what is usually used?
    - Infinitive
  46. How is the pass�� simple formed for er verbs?
    • - Dropping er from infinitive
    • - Adding ai, as, a, ?mes, ?tes, ��rent
  47. How is the pass�� simple formed for RE and IR verbs
    • - Dropping ending ir or re
    • - Adding is, is, it, ?mes, ?tes, irent
  48. For most irregular verbs, how is the pass�� simple formed?
    • - Past participle as base
    • - S, s, t, mes, tes, rent as endings
    • - Remember to add accent on ��I��> ��u��
  49. How is p.q.p. formed?
    - Imparfait (avoir or etre) with past participle
  50. What is p.q.p. used for?
    • - Past action completed prior to another past action
    • - Can be used to express habitual
  51. How is the f.a. formed?
    - Future simple (avoir or etre) with past participle
  52. What is f.a. used for?
    - To express a future action that will be completed prior to another one
  53. How is the c.p. formed?
    - Conditional (avoir or etre) with past participle
  54. What is the c.p. used for?
    - Something that would have taken place if something else did not interfere
  55. What types of si sentences are there?
    • 1. P.q.p. + c.p.
    • 2. Imparfait + conditionnel
    • 3. Present/pass�� + future/imperative
  56. How is the imparfait formed?
    • - Dropping ons in present nousu form
    • - Adding ais, ais, ait, ions, iez, aient
  57. When is the imparfait used?
    • 1. Habitual action
    • 2. Description of the past
    • 3. Mental activity or state of mind
  58. How is the conditionnel formed?
    - Adding ais, ais, ait, ions, iez, aient to future stem of verb
  59. Why is the conditional used?
    • - An action that would happen
    • - For an action based upon a condition
    • - Soften a request, command, a desire
    • - To express possibility and unsureness
    • - May or may not be true
  60. What are the irregular forms of conditionnel/future simple?
    • - Avoir �C aur
    • - Etre �C ser
    • - Aller �C ir
    • - Faire �C fer
    • - Envoyer �C enverr
    • - Falloire �C faudr
    • - Pleuvoir �C pleuvr
    • - Pouvoir �C pourr
    • - Savoir - saur
    • - Valoir �C vaudr
    • - Venir �C viendr
    • - Voir �C verr
    • - Voulour - voudr
  61. How are verbs changed in indirect speech?
    • - Pass�� to p.q.p.
    • - Present to imparfait
    • - Future to conditionnel
  62. What are the DRMRSVANDERTRAMP words?
    - Devenir, revenir, monter, retourner, sortir, venir, aller, naitre, descendre, entre, rentre, tomber, rester, arriver, mourir, partir

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