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What is the difference between indicatif and subjonctif?
- - Indicative mood is used for an action not dependent upon an opinion or condition
- - Indicative implies a truth, fact, or probability
- - Subjunctive is used to express subjective idea, opinion, or condition
- - Implies contrary to fact, possible but not probable
How is the regular form of subjonctif formed?
- - Drop the �Cent of the ��ils�� form
- - Adding e, es, e, ions, iez, ent
What verbs have double ��i�� in subjonctif form? Which pronouns?
- - Verbs that end in ��ier��
- - Verbs ��rire�� and ��sourire��
- - Only in ��nous�� and ��vous�� forms
What are the ��ils�� base of these verbs? Ouvrir, courir, rire, conclure, romper, batter, metre, partir, conna?tre, plaire, se taire, lire, dire, conduire, traduire, dormer, server, suivre, vivre, vaincre, craindre, joinder, peindre, s��asseoir?
- Ouvrent, courent, rient, concluent, rompent, batten, mettent, partent, connaissent, plaisent, se taisent, lisent, dissent, conduisent, traduisent, dorment, servent, suivent, vivent, vainquent, craignent, joingnent, peingnent, s��asseyent
When do verbs change ��y�� to ��i�� in nous and vous form?
- - When verbs end in ��i�� in ��ils�� form, change to ��y�� in nous and vous
- - Employer, envoyer, nettoyer, essayer, payer, croire, voir
What do verbs with �� in infinitive do in nous and vous form, in other forms?
- - Keep �� in nous and vous form
- - Change to �� in other forms
- - C��der, compl��ter, consid��rer, esp��rer, pr��f��rer, r��p��ter
What do verbs with e in infinitive do in nous and vous form, in other forms?
- - Change to �� in other forms
- - Keep e in nous and vous form
- - Acheter, appeler, jeter, lever, mener
What do verbs with double consonant do in nous and vous form? In other form?
- - Keep double consonant in other forms
- - Change to one consonant in nous and vous form
What do verbs with variable bases do in nous and vous form? In other form?
- - Have the same base as ��nous�� form of indicative
- - As ��mourons -> mourions; recevons, recevions, buvons, buvions��
What are the irregular verbs of subjonctif?
- Avoir, ��tre, pouvoir, faire, savoir, vouloir, aller, valoir, falloir, peuvoir
How are each conjugated?
- - Aie, aies, ait, ayons, ayez, aient
- - Sois, sois, soit, soyons, soyez, soient
- - Puisse, puisses, puisse, puissions, puissiez, puissent
- - Fasse, fasses, fasse, fassions, fassiez, fassent
- - Sache, saches, sache, sachions, sachiez, sachent
- - Veuille, veuilles, veuille, voulions, vouliez, veuillent
- - Aille, ailles, aille, allions, alliez, aillent
- - Vaille, vailles, vaille, valions, valiez, vaillent
- - Faille (il only)
- - Pleuve (il only)
What are the 6 scenarios where we should use subjonctif?
- 1. Wish, preference, or desire (vouloir, pr��f��rer, d��sirer)
- 2. Doubt (douter)
- 3. Denial (nier)
- 4. Emotions and feelings (��tre ____, avoir _____, etc)
- 5. Order (commander, exiger, ordonner)
- 6. Refusal or permission (permettre, consenter, d��fender, emp��cher)
What kind of expression uses subjonctif?
- - Any expression that express opinion or emotions
- - Unless the opinion is a general opinion, such as ��one should not do this�� (without a subject in the sentence)
Which expressions use indicative?
- - Showing probability and truth
- - Certain, s?r, probable, ��vident, exact, clair, vrai, vraisemblable, it para?t que
What about the two using???semble???
- - Il semble que = subjonctif
- - Il me semble que = indicative
What are the exceptions with expression with certainty
- - Certain, s?r, probable, croire, penser are followed by indicative
- - Unless they are in a negative or in a question
What subjunctives with subordinate conjunctions require indicative?
- - Aussit?t que, d��s que, apr��s que, pendant que, parce que
- - All the other ones with subordinate conjunctions are subjuctive
What are the exceptions to the rule just mentioned
- De mani��re que, de fa?on que, de sorte que are followed by indicative when the result is already accomplished and irreversible deed/fact
How are possessive pronouns formed?
- 1. Le/la/les, according to the object
- 2. Mien, tien, sien, n?tre, v?tre, leur, according to the subject
- 3. Make the subject agree with the object
What happens when the subject is infinitive?
- - Such as on, personne, tout le monde, chacun
- - Use different forms of ??sien??
What if a plural object is modified by chacun?
- Object agrees with subject
What are demonstrative pronouns?
- - Means this one, that one, these, those
- - Celui, celle, ceux, celles
How can ��celui�� be used?
- - When followed by a relative pronoun, means ��the one��, ��the ones��, ��he (she) who��, ��these�� or ��those��
- - Followed by ��de�� can indicate possession
- - To compare, these and those, with ��celui-ci�� and ��celles-l����, ��celui-ci�� = latter, ??celui-l��???= former
What are relative pronouns used for?
- To introduce a clause that modifies a noun
What is qui used for?
- - Refers to the subject of the clause, may be person or thing
- - Followed by a verb
What is que used for?
- - Refers to the direct object of the clause, may be person or things
- - Followed by the subject, or not a verb
What is o�� used for?
- To indicate place or time
When are ��ce qui�� and ��ce dont�� used?
- When there are no antecedent
What relative pronouns can be used for prepositions other than ��de��?
- - Qui
- - Lequel, laquelle, lesquels, lesquelles
When is qui used?
- - ��to whom��, ��for whom��
- - Only used for people
When is lequel, laquelle, lesquels, lesquelles, used?
- - ??for which, infront of which??, etc
- - Must agree with the antecedent/subject
What 2 words must require lequel instead of qui or don��t?
- Entre, parmi
When the preposition is �� and is followed by lequel, it changes to?
- Auquel, �� laquelle, auxquels, auxquelles
When is dont used?
- - When the preposition is ��de��
- - Used to replace duquel and its forms
- - Means whose, of which, of whom
What can dont not be followed by?
- Cannot be followed by possessive adjective if it is used as ��whose��, must be ��les�� instead of ��ses
What can dont not be used for?
- - Only when it follows the noun that it refers to
- - Not used when the noun is followed by prepositional phrase
- - Such as ��subject�� + ��preposition�� + ��subject�� and then don��t
- - Must use de plus lequel
- - Must agree with the first subject
- - ��subject avec la soeur duquel��
What words require ??dont???
- - Avoir envie de
- - Avoir peur de
- - Avoir besoin de
- - Avoir honte de
- - ��tre amoreux de
- - ��tre fier de
- - D��cider de
- - Finir de
- - Accepter de
- - Oublier de
- - Parler de
- - Remercier de
- - R��ver de
- - Refuser de
- - S��inqui��ter de
- - Se souvenir de
- - S��excuser de
What words require ??��???
- - Dire ��
- - ��crire ��
- - Parler ��
- - R��pondre ��
- - S��int��resser ��
- - Telephone ��
Quoi is used afer
- - S��agit de quoi
- - Penser �� quoi
- - ��crire sur quoi
How is the present participle formed?
- - Dropping ons of nous form
- - Adding ant
What are the irregular forms of present participle?
- - Avoir �C ayant
- - ��tre �C ��tant
- - Savoir �C sachant
How can present particpes be used?
- 1. As adjective, it modifies a noun; must agree with the noun it modifies
- 2. Express actions that take place at the same time as the action of the principal verb
- 3. Cause, (since he is��)
When is present participle used?
- After en (by, while, upon, although)
When is ��en�� not used?
- - After commencer and finir (use par and infinitive)
- - After s��amuser (use �� and infinitive)
Without these prepositions, what is usually used?
How is the pass�� simple formed for er verbs?
- - Dropping er from infinitive
- - Adding ai, as, a, ?mes, ?tes, ��rent
How is the pass�� simple formed for RE and IR verbs
- - Dropping ending ir or re
- - Adding is, is, it, ?mes, ?tes, irent
For most irregular verbs, how is the pass�� simple formed?
- - Past participle as base
- - S, s, t, mes, tes, rent as endings
- - Remember to add accent on ��I��> ��u��
How is p.q.p. formed?
- Imparfait (avoir or etre) with past participle
What is p.q.p. used for?
- - Past action completed prior to another past action
- - Can be used to express habitual
How is the f.a. formed?
- Future simple (avoir or etre) with past participle
What is f.a. used for?
- To express a future action that will be completed prior to another one
How is the c.p. formed?
- Conditional (avoir or etre) with past participle
What is the c.p. used for?
- Something that would have taken place if something else did not interfere
What types of si sentences are there?
- 1. P.q.p. + c.p.
- 2. Imparfait + conditionnel
- 3. Present/pass�� + future/imperative
How is the imparfait formed?
- - Dropping ons in present nousu form
- - Adding ais, ais, ait, ions, iez, aient
When is the imparfait used?
- 1. Habitual action
- 2. Description of the past
- 3. Mental activity or state of mind
How is the conditionnel formed?
- Adding ais, ais, ait, ions, iez, aient to future stem of verb
Why is the conditional used?
- - An action that would happen
- - For an action based upon a condition
- - Soften a request, command, a desire
- - To express possibility and unsureness
- - May or may not be true
What are the irregular forms of conditionnel/future simple?
- - Avoir �C aur
- - Etre �C ser
- - Aller �C ir
- - Faire �C fer
- - Envoyer �C enverr
- - Falloire �C faudr
- - Pleuvoir �C pleuvr
- - Pouvoir �C pourr
- - Savoir - saur
- - Valoir �C vaudr
- - Venir �C viendr
- - Voir �C verr
- - Voulour - voudr
How are verbs changed in indirect speech?
- - Pass�� to p.q.p.
- - Present to imparfait
- - Future to conditionnel
What are the DRMRSVANDERTRAMP words?
- Devenir, revenir, monter, retourner, sortir, venir, aller, naitre, descendre, entre, rentre, tomber, rester, arriver, mourir, partir