Acid-Base

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Author:
pachie_18
ID:
159660
Filename:
Acid-Base
Updated:
2012-06-22 12:20:15
Tags:
Review
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Description:
NCLEX
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  1. NORMAL ABG's
    • pH = 7.35-7.45 pH units
    • PO2=80-100mm/Hg
    • PCO2=35-45mm/Hg
    • HCO3=22-26mmol/L
    • CO2=19-24mmol/L
    • SaO2= >95%
  2. METABOLIC ACIDOSIS, what ABG's will you suspect ?
    • pH= down
    • HCO3=down
    • PCO2=down or normal
  3. METABOLIC ACIDOSIS, what is your compensation ?
    lungs blow off CO2 & hold on to HCO3
  4. METABOLIC ACIDOSIS, what is the cause ?
    • aspirin overdose
    • renal failure
    • diarrhea
    • sepsis
    • DKA 
  5. METABOLIC ACIDOSIS, what are the s/s ?
    • drowsiness
    • confusion
    • increase R rate
    • N/V
    • h/a 
  6. METABOLIC ALKALOSIS , what are your ABG's ?
    • ph=up
    • HCO3=up
    • PCO2=up 
  7. METABOLIC ALKALOSIS, what is your compensation ?
    lungs hold on to CO2, the kidneys hold on to H+ & get rid of HCO3
  8. METABOLIC ALKALOSIS, what are the causes ?
    • vomiting
    • excessive antacids
    • GI suctioning
    • decrease K+
    • increase Ca+ 
  9. METABOLIC ALKALOSIS, what are the s/s ?
    • stiff muscles
    • tingling in extremities
    • dizziness 
  10. RESPIRATORY ACIDOSIS, what are your ABG's ?
    • pH=down
    • HCO3=down or normal
    • PCO2=up 
  11. RESPIRATORY ACIDOSIS, what is your compensation ?
    kidneys hold on to HCO3 & get rid of H+
  12. RESPIRATORY ACISODIS, what are the causes ?
    • CNS depression
    • hypoventilation
    • airway obstruction
    • chest trauma
    • pneumonia
    • aspiration
    • drug overdose
    • pulmonary edema
    • respiratory depression 
  13. RESPIRATORY ACIDOSIS, what are your s/s ?
    • high BP/P/R
    • dysrhytmias
    • restless
    • confused
    • weakness 
  14. RESPIRATORY ALKALOSIS, what are your ABG's ?
    • pH=up
    • HCO3=down or normal
    • PCO2=down 
  15. RESPIRATORY ALKALOSIS, what is your compensation ?
    kidneys get rid of HCO3 & hold on to H+
  16. RESPIRATORY ALKALOSIS, what are the causes ?
    • anxiety
    • hyperventilation
    • pulmonary embolism
    • hypoxia 
  17. RESPIRATORY ALKALOSIS, what are your s/s ?
     
    • light-headedness
    • inability to concentrate
    • confusion
    • numbness/tingling 
  18. How does the body regulates pH ?
    ***there are 2 buffer systems i the body that assist in regulating pH . 
    • KIDNEYS : by retaining or excreting NaHCO3 (sodium bicarb) or by excreting acidic urine or alkaline urine. They also help by reabsorbing NaHCO3 & secreting free H+ ions.
    • LUNGS : by retaining carbonic acid in the form of CO2 or by rapid respirations excreting CO2 
  19. What are the s/s for hypernatremia (>145mEq/L) ?
    • thirst
    • flushed skin
    • restlessness
    • decreased LOC
    • tremors
    • weakness 
  20. Name foods high in sodium ?
    • cheese
    • pork
    • sardines
    • dried fruits
    • ketchup
    • mustard
    • pickles
    • snack foods
    • soy sauce
    • packaged foods 
  21. What are the s/s for hyponatremia (<135mEq/L) ?
    • lethargic
    • decreased LOC
    • inability to concentrate
    • twitching
    • N/V
    • seizures 
  22. What are the s/s for hyperkalemia (>5.5mEq/L) ?
    • anxious
    • diarrhea/carmps
    • paresthesia
    • leg weakness
    • EKG changes: peak T-wave, wide QRS, irregular pulse, low BP, dysrhytmias 
  23. What are the s/s for hypokalemia (<3.5mEq/L) ?
    • malaise/fatigue
    • N/V
    • increased urine output
    • cramps. numbness
    • flat T, U-wave, low BP, dysrhytmias
    • irregular or weak pulse 
  24. Name foods high in potassium.
    • apricots
    • avocado
    • banana
    • dates
    • chocolate
    • dried peas & beans
    • oranges
    • potatoes
    • spinach
    • tomatoes 
  25. What are the s/s for hypercalcemia (>11mg/dl) ?
    • fatigue
    • bone pain
    • itching
    • N/V
    • constipation
    • renal dysfunction
    • poor coordination/unsteady gait
    • decrease ST/QT; increased PR interval
  26. What are the s/s for hypocalcemia (<8mg/dl) ?
    • anxious, irritable
    • seizures
    • confusion
    • diarrhea
    • stridor
    • hyperreflexia
    • tremors
    • +Trosseau's/Chvostek's sign
    • muscle cramps
    • ventricular dysrhytmias
    • heart block
    • ST/QT increase 
  27. Name foods high in Ca+.
     
    • cheese
    • milk chocolate
    • seafood
    • tofu
    • yogurt
    • oat flakes
    • molasses
    • meat
    • cereal 
  28. What are the s/s for hypermagnesemia (>2.5mg/dl) ?
    • flushing
    • drowsiness
    • N/V
    • weakness
    • decrease HR/ BP
    • wide QRS, tall T-wave 
    • hyporeflexia 
  29. What are the s/s for hypomagnesemia (<1.5mg/dl) ?
    • hallucinations
    • anorexia
    • confusion
    • tetany/hyperreflexia
    • leg cramps
    • increase BP/HR/QT
    • dysrhytmias 
  30. Name foods high in magnesium.
    • chocolate
    • legumes
    • seafood
    • soy
    • bananas
    • coconuts
    • green leafy veggies
    • oranges

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