Cancer part 2

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Author:
ambirc
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159662
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Cancer part 2
Updated:
2012-06-22 12:35:17
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HMIT 210 Cancer
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Study Guide Questions 6-13
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  1. Carcinogenesis
    • •The development of cancer. A multi-step process involving a
    • complex sequence of genetic mutations
  2. Mutation
    • •Changes in the biochemistry of a gene
    •  
  3. •Mutations in three classes of genes are responsible for the development of cancer
    •Oncogenes

    •Tumor Suppressor genes

    •DNA repair genes
  4. Point mutation
    •Small, but significant changes often in a single nucleotide base
  5. Deletion
    •Removes information from gene that could be as small as a single base or as large as the gene
  6. Insertion
    •Occurs when extra DNA is added into existing gene
  7. •Frame shift
    •Results from either addition or deletion of one or two nucleotide base pairs and whenthis occurs

    • -The “reading frame” is changed so that all the codons read
    • after the mutation are incorrect Although
    • -The nucleoside base pairs may be still present
  8. Oncogene (AKA damaged gene)
    •When mutated or expressed at abnormally high levels contributes to converting a normal cell into a cancer cell
  9. •DNA repair gene (AKA caretaker gene)
    • •Responsible
    • for repair of errors

    • in normal DNA replication
    • •Codes for proteins that correct for errors arising when cells duplicate their DNA prior to cell division
    • •Maintain genetic stability and minimize the rate at which mutations occur in tumor suppressor genes
    • •Mutations in DNA repair genes can lead to a failure in DNA repair, allowing mutations to
    • accumulate
  10. •Endogenous  causes of cancer
    (Nonmodifiable cause) 
    • •Genes (heredity)
    • •Sex
    • •Race
    • •Hormones
    • •Immunity
  11. Environmental causes of Cancer
    (Modifiable) 
    •Tobacco

    • •Industrial chemicals
    • •Radiation
    • •Diet
    • •Alcohols
    • •Chronic infections
    • •Medicines
  12. Tobacco
    •20-fold greater smoker versus nonsmokers

    Tobacco and its various components increase the risk of several types of cancer especially cancer of the lung, mouth, larynx, esophagus, bladder, kidney, pancreas, and cervix. Smoking also increases the risk of heart attacks, strokes and chronic lung disease.
  13. •Industrial chemicals
    • •Asbestos-most common cause of occupational 
    • exposure- leads to mesothelioma
  14. Ionizing radiation  - sources
    •Natural

    •Industrial
  15. •Ionizing radiation - Medical
    • •Leukemia
    • •breast cancer
    • •thyroid cancer
  16. •Sunlight sources and medical
    • •Ultraviolet radiation
    • •Skin cancer
  17. •Chronic infections
    •20% of cancers associated with chronic infections
  18. •Environmental causes - Medicines
    • •The synthetic estrogen diethylstilbestrol Given to mothers during pregnancy (1960’s and 1970’s) linked to vaginal cancer in their daughters
    • •Cancer chemotherapeutic agents may be carcinogenic
  19. Cancer screening
    Understand potential risk factors
  20. Early diagnosis
    •Understand potential warning signs
  21. Prevention
    •Understang influence of life-style 
  22. Two major types of lung cancer
    •Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) - most common

    •Small cell lung cancer (SCLC)
  23. •Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) - three different cellular types
    • •Adenocarcinomas
    • -Often found in an outer area of the lung

    • •Squamous cell carcinomas
    • -Usually found in the center of the lung by a bronchus

    • •Large cell carcinomas 
    • -Occur in any part of the lung
    • -Tend to grow and spread faster than the other two cellular types
  24. •Small cell lung cancer (SCLC)
    • ** The most aggressive and fastest growing type of lung cancer
    •  Metastasizes more readily throughout body than NSC
    • Linked to cigarette smoke exposure
  25. •There are three different types of SCLC:
    • •Small cell carcinoma (AKA oat cell carcinoma) - Most common of the three types
    • •Mixed small cell/large cell carcinoma
    • •Combined small cell carcinoma
  26. Which is the most common Lung Cancer
    Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) 
  27. The most aggressive lung cancer 
    Small cell lung cancer •SCLC:
  28. Which Mastasizes throughout the body
    •Small cell lung cancer (SCLC)
  29. Breast cancer
    • Most frequently diagnosed cancer in women
    • Detected by self-examination of the breast and mammogram
    • Less common changes to the breast include thickening, swelling, tenderness, and ulceration
    • Male breast cancer is rare
  30. Types of Breast Cancer
    • •Ductal carcinoma
    • -Starts in the tubes (ducts) that move milk from the breast to the nipple
    • -Most breast cancers are of this type

    • •Lobular carcinoma
    • -Starts in the parts of the breast, called lobules, that produce milk
  31. •Important risk factors include to Breast Cancer
    •Age

    •Female gender

    •Personal family history

    •Genetic risk factors

    •Reproductive factors linked to breast cancer
  32. Reproductive factors linked to breast cancer
    -Long menstrual history-Oral contraceptive use-Never having children-First child after the age of 30
  33. Genetic risk factors to breast cancer
    •Harmful mutations to BRCA1 and BRCA2

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