Exam 2: Lower Extremity Joints/Plexus

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Exam 2: Lower Extremity Joints/Plexus
2012-06-22 13:48:18
anatomy lumbosacral plexus joints

review of lecture 6/22 on Joints of Lower extremity and lumbosacral plexus for exam 2
Show Answers:

  1. What bones make up the acetabulum?
    • ilium
    • ishium
    • pubis
  2. What type of joint is the hip joint?
    ball and socket
  3. What bones make up the hip joint?
    • head of femur
    • lunate surface of acetabulum
    • transverse acetabular ligament 
    • acetabular labrum   
  4. What is the acetabulum?
    socket for hip joint
  5. What movements are possible at the hip joint?
    • flexion-extension
    • abduction-adduction
    • medial-lateral rotation
    • circumduction  
  6. How many axes of motion are possible at the hip joint?
    three axes of motion
  7. What is the articular capsule of the hip joint?
    strong and dense; attached proximally to brim of acetabulum, transverse ligament, labrum, and onneck of femur
  8. What are the direction of fibers on the articular capule of the hip joint?
    • sprial for fibers from os coxae to intertrochanteric line
    • circular fibers around femoral neck 
  9. What are the intrinsic ligaments of the hip joint?
    • iliofemoral
    • pubofemoral
    • ischiofemoral
    • ligament of head of femur  
  10. Where is the iliofemoral ligament?
    from anterior inferior iliac spine and acetabular margin to intertrochanteric line
  11. Where is the pubofemoral ligament?
    from acetabular margin (pubis) to superior end of intertrochanteric line
  12. Where is the ischiofemoral ligament?
    from acetabular margin (ischium) to superior end of intertrochanteric line
  13. What is the function of the ligament of the head of the femur?
    transmits blood vessels to head of femur
  14. What muscles cross the hip joint?
    • anteriorly -- iliopsoas
    • posteriorly -- intrinsic mm. of hip 
  15. What are the special features of the hip joint?
    very stable joint having appropriately shaped bones, strong ligaments, close intrinsic mm., and powerful extinsic mm. also crossing the joint
  16. What makes up the iliopsoas m.?
    psoas major and iliacus tendons combine to form one tendon (iliopsoas m.)
  17. Is the hip joint's range of motion greater or less than the shoulder's range of motion?
    considerably less
  18. Which is a more stable joint, the hip or shoulder?
  19. What are some potential problems concerning the hip joint?
    • fractures of neck of femur
    • congenital dislocation
    • traumatic dislocation
    • aseptic necrosis    
  20. What type of joint is the knee joint?
    hinge, but modified with three joints in one capsule
  21. Which bones make up the knee joint?
    femu, tibia and patella
  22. What kind of bone is the patella?
    sesamoid bone
  23. Is the fibula part of the knee joint?
  24. What movements are possible at the knee joint?
    • flexion and extension
    • small amount of rotation and gliding action to lock extension 
  25. What is the anterior capsule of the knee joint?
    loose and thin posteriorly; reinforce medially, laterally, and anteriorly
  26. How are the fibers of the articular capsule of the knee joint arranged?
    mostly vertical fom articular margins on both sets of condyles (femoral and tibial)
  27. Which condyle of the tibia is larger? Medial or Lateral?
  28. The medial condyle of the femur has a comprable surface to what structure on the tibia?
    medial condyle
  29. Where is the medial meniscus found?
    between the medial condyles of the femur and tibia
  30. What happens to the MCL and the medial meniscus when there is a lateral blow to the knee joint?
    tears the MCL which in turn damages the medial meniscus
  31. Where is the popliteus muscle positioned?
    between LCL and lateral meniscus
  32. What is a effect of the placement of the popliteus muscle?
    less likely to injure the lateral meniscus
  33. What is the fuction of the collateral ligaments of the knee joint?
    • prevent tilting movements
    • keep bones aligned 
  34. What is the function of the PCL?
    • prevents femur from forward displacement during flexion of knee
    • prevents backward displacement of tibia 
  35. What is the function of the ACL?
    • prevents hyperextension
    • prevents backward displacement of femur with extended knee
    • prevents forward displacement of tibia  
  36. What is the function of the suprapatellar bursa?
    gives cuschion between bone and patella to prevent the patella from wearing down
  37. What is the meniscus made up of?
    collagen fibers
  38. What are the different orientations of the collagen fibers of the menisci?
    • radial
    • circumfrential
    • interwoven
  39. Describe the shape of the lateral meniscus:
    one periphery, there is a thickening, but traveling into the knee joint it thins out
  40. What are the intrinsic ligaments of the knee joint?
    • anterior/posterior cruciate ligaments
    • fibular (later) collateral
    • tibial (medial) collateral
    • oblique popliteal
    • arcuate popliteal
    • patellar ligament     
  41. Where are the anterior and posterior cruciate ligaments found?
    in intercondylar area
  42. In which direction do the fibers of the anterior cruciate ligament run?
    from lower medial to upper lateral
  43. In which direction do the fibers of the posterior cruciate ligament run?
    from upper medial to lower lateral
  44. Which cruciate ligament is smaller in diameter and weaker?
  45. Which muscle tendon partly overlaps the LCL?
    biceps femoris tendon
  46. Which muscles cross the MCL?
    • sartorius
    • gracilis
    • semitendinosus 
  47. What is the pes anserinus?
    • group of muscles that cross the MCL:
    • sartorius
    • gracilis
    • semitendinosus
  48. Which ligament does the medial meniscus attach to?
  49. How do menisci attach to tibia?
    ligamentus structures
  50. Do the menisci attach to the tibia?
  51. Where do the menisci attach?
    intercondylar area
  52. Can the menisci freely shift and adapt to curvature of femoral condyle?
  53. Which muscles cross the knee joint?
    • anterior and posterior actors
    • medial and lateral stabilizers 
  54. Which joint as the largest joint area, synovial capsule and bursae?
    knee joint
  55. Is the knee structurally stable or unstable?
  56. What keeps the knee functionally strong?
    • cruciate ligaments
    • cartlages (medial and lateral menisci)
    • collateral ligaments (medial and lateral)  
  57. What are potential problems at the knee joint?
    • athletic injuries
    • infections
    • post-surgical complications 
  58. Which arteries supply the knee joint?
    • genicular aa.
    • branches going to menisci 
  59. Are there arteries in the inter-region of the menisci?
  60. Where does the main arterial supply of the menisci go to?
    periphery and diminishes as it goes internally
  61. Why does it matter that the internal part of the menisci have diminished blood supply?
    causes most tears to originate here at the center and not in the periphery
  62. What is another name for the ankle joint?
  63. What type of joint is the ankle joint?
  64. What bones make up the ankle joint?
    tibia, fibula, talus
  65. What movements are possible at the ankle joint?
    • flexion "plantar flexion" (to about 55 degrees)
    • extension "dorisflexion" (to about 35 degrees)
  66. What is the articular capsule of the ankle joint?
    losse and thin in anterior - posterior orientation
  67. What is the orientation of the fibers of the articular capsule of the ankle joint?
    vertical fibers from edges of articular surfaces on inferior tibia and the malleoli
  68. What are the ligaments of the ankle joint?
    • deltoid (medial collateral)
    • lateral collateral 
  69. Which muscles are part of the ankle joint?
    any muscle crossing this area andinserting on the foot
  70. What does stability of the ankle joint depend on? 
    balance between gravity and muscle pull together work against shapes of bones and direction of ligaments
  71. Why does western culture demand unstable ankles for women?
    because of elevated shoe heels
  72. What are potential problems of the ankle joint?
    • torn ligaments
    • -medial collateral
    • -lateral collateral
    • avulsion of malleoli
    • response to movement in more distal joints    
  73. What do the nerves of the lumbosacral plexus provide?
    sensory and motor to lower extremity
  74. What spinal nerves make up the lumbosacral plexus?
  75. Which spinal nerves does the sciatic nerve arise from?
  76. What causes sciatica?
    protruding disc somewhere in L4-S3 levels compressing the spinal cords that make the sciatic nerve