Exam 2: Lower Extremity Joints/Plexus
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What bones make up the acetabulum?
What type of joint is the hip joint?
ball and socket
What bones make up the hip joint?
- head of femur
- lunate surface of acetabulum
- transverse acetabular ligament
- acetabular labrum
What is the acetabulum?
socket for hip joint
What movements are possible at the hip joint?
- medial-lateral rotation
How many axes of motion are possible at the hip joint?
three axes of motion
What is the articular capsule of the hip joint?
strong and dense; attached proximally to brim of acetabulum, transverse ligament, labrum, and onneck of femur
What are the direction of fibers on the articular capule of the hip joint?
- sprial for fibers from os coxae to intertrochanteric line
- circular fibers around femoral neck
What are the intrinsic ligaments of the hip joint?
- ligament of head of femur
Where is the iliofemoral ligament?
from anterior inferior iliac spine and acetabular margin to intertrochanteric line
Where is the pubofemoral ligament?
from acetabular margin (pubis) to superior end of intertrochanteric line
Where is the ischiofemoral ligament?
from acetabular margin (ischium) to superior end of intertrochanteric line
What is the function of the ligament of the head of the femur?
transmits blood vessels to head of femur
What muscles cross the hip joint?
- anteriorly -- iliopsoas
- posteriorly -- intrinsic mm. of hip
What are the special features of the hip joint?
very stable joint having appropriately shaped bones, strong ligaments, close intrinsic mm., and powerful extinsic mm. also crossing the joint
What makes up the iliopsoas m.?
psoas major and iliacus tendons combine to form one tendon (iliopsoas m.)
Is the hip joint's range of motion greater or less than the shoulder's range of motion?
Which is a more stable joint, the hip or shoulder?
What are some potential problems concerning the hip joint?
- fractures of neck of femur
- congenital dislocation
- traumatic dislocation
- aseptic necrosis
What type of joint is the knee joint?
hinge, but modified with three joints in one capsule
Which bones make up the knee joint?
femu, tibia and patella
What kind of bone is the patella?
Is the fibula part of the knee joint?
What movements are possible at the knee joint?
- flexion and extension
- small amount of rotation and gliding action to lock extension
What is the anterior capsule of the knee joint?
loose and thin posteriorly; reinforce medially, laterally, and anteriorly
How are the fibers of the articular capsule of the knee joint arranged?
mostly vertical fom articular margins on both sets of condyles (femoral and tibial)
Which condyle of the tibia is larger? Medial or Lateral?
The medial condyle of the femur has a comprable surface to what structure on the tibia?
Where is the medial meniscus found?
between the medial condyles of the femur and tibia
What happens to the MCL and the medial meniscus when there is a lateral blow to the knee joint?
tears the MCL which in turn damages the medial meniscus
Where is the popliteus muscle positioned?
between LCL and lateral meniscus
What is a effect of the placement of the popliteus muscle?
less likely to injure the lateral meniscus
What is the fuction of the collateral ligaments of the knee joint?
- prevent tilting movements
- keep bones aligned
What is the function of the PCL?
- prevents femur from forward displacement during flexion of knee
- prevents backward displacement of tibia
What is the function of the ACL?
- prevents hyperextension
- prevents backward displacement of femur with extended knee
- prevents forward displacement of tibia
What is the function of the suprapatellar bursa?
gives cuschion between bone and patella to prevent the patella from wearing down
What is the meniscus made up of?
What are the different orientations of the collagen fibers of the menisci?
Describe the shape of the lateral meniscus:
one periphery, there is a thickening, but traveling into the knee joint it thins out
What are the intrinsic ligaments of the knee joint?
- anterior/posterior cruciate ligaments
- fibular (later) collateral
- tibial (medial) collateral
- oblique popliteal
- arcuate popliteal
- patellar ligament
Where are the anterior and posterior cruciate ligaments found?
in intercondylar area
In which direction do the fibers of the anterior cruciate ligament run?
from lower medial to upper lateral
In which direction do the fibers of the posterior cruciate ligament run?
from upper medial to lower lateral
Which cruciate ligament is smaller in diameter and weaker?
Which muscle tendon partly overlaps the LCL?
biceps femoris tendon
Which muscles cross the MCL?
What is the pes anserinus?
- group of muscles that cross the MCL:
Which ligament does the medial meniscus attach to?
How do menisci attach to tibia?
Do the menisci attach to the tibia?
Where do the menisci attach?
Can the menisci freely shift and adapt to curvature of femoral condyle?
Which muscles cross the knee joint?
- anterior and posterior actors
- medial and lateral stabilizers
Which joint as the largest joint area, synovial capsule and bursae?
Is the knee structurally stable or unstable?
What keeps the knee functionally strong?
- cruciate ligaments
- cartlages (medial and lateral menisci)
- collateral ligaments (medial and lateral)
What are potential problems at the knee joint?
- athletic injuries
- post-surgical complications
Which arteries supply the knee joint?
- genicular aa.
- branches going to menisci
Are there arteries in the inter-region of the menisci?
Where does the main arterial supply of the menisci go to?
periphery and diminishes as it goes internally
Why does it matter that the internal part of the menisci have diminished blood supply?
causes most tears to originate here at the center and not in the periphery
What is another name for the ankle joint?
What type of joint is the ankle joint?
What bones make up the ankle joint?
tibia, fibula, talus
What movements are possible at the ankle joint?
- flexion "plantar flexion" (to about 55 degrees)
- extension "dorisflexion" (to about 35 degrees)
What is the articular capsule of the ankle joint?
losse and thin in anterior - posterior orientation
What is the orientation of the fibers of the articular capsule of the ankle joint?
vertical fibers from edges of articular surfaces on inferior tibia and the malleoli
What are the ligaments of the ankle joint?
- deltoid (medial collateral)
- lateral collateral
Which muscles are part of the ankle joint?
any muscle crossing this area andinserting on the foot
What does stability of the ankle joint depend on?
balance between gravity and muscle pull together work against shapes of bones and direction of ligaments
Why does western culture demand unstable ankles for women?
because of elevated shoe heels
What are potential problems of the ankle joint?
- torn ligaments
- -medial collateral
- -lateral collateral
- avulsion of malleoli
- response to movement in more distal joints
What do the nerves of the lumbosacral plexus provide?
sensory and motor to lower extremity
What spinal nerves make up the lumbosacral plexus?
Which spinal nerves does the sciatic nerve arise from?
What causes sciatica?
protruding disc somewhere in L4-S3 levels compressing the spinal cords that make the sciatic nerve
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