BIOL40C Ch. 18 Endocrine System

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BIOL40C Ch. 18 Endocrine System
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2012-06-23 06:31:54
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Endocrine
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  1. Mediator molecules: endocrine vs. nervous
    • endocrine: hormones delivered by blood
    • nervous: NTs released locally 
  2. Site of mediator action: endocrine vs. nervous
    • endocrine: usually far from site of release; binds to receptors on/in target cells
    • nervous: at synapse (close to site of release); binds to receptors in postsynaptic membrane 
  3. Types of target cells: endocrine vs. nervous
    • endocrine: cells throughout body
    • nervous: muscle, gland cells, other neurons 
  4. Time to onset of action: endocrine vs. nervous
    • endocrine: seconds to hours to days
    • nervous: milliseconds 
  5. Duration of action: endocrine vs. nervous
    • endocrine: seconds to days
    • nervous: milliseconds 
  6. endocrine gland
    glands that secrete their hormones into the interstitial fluid surrounding the secretory cells, rather than into ducts
  7. neuroendocrine system
    nervous and endocrine systems act as a highly coordinated system
  8. target cell
    cell with a receptor for a hormone
  9. receptor downregulation
    number of target cell receptors decreases in response to the presence of excess hormone
  10. receptor upregulation
    number of receptors increases in response to hormone deficiency 
  11. 3 lipid soluble hormone classes
    • 1) steroid
    • 2) thyroid
    • 3) gas 
  12. 7 steroid hormones
    • 1) aldosterone
    • 2) cortisol
    • 3) androgens
    • 4) calcitriol
    • 5) estrogen
    • 6) progesterone
    • 7) testosterone

    ACACEPT 
  13. 2 thyroid hormones
    • 1) T3 (triiodothyronine)
    • 2) T4 (thyroxine)  
  14. gas hormone
    nitric oxide
  15. 3 classes of water soluble hormones
    • 1) amines
    • 2) peptides/proteins
    • 3) eicosanoids 
  16. 5 amine hormones
    • 1) serotonin
    • 2) histamine
    • 3) melatonin
    • 4) epinephrine
    • 5) norepinephrine

    SHMEN
  17. 2 eicosanoid hormones
    • 1) prostaglandins
    • 2) leukotrienes 
  18. Where are the receptors located for lipid-soluble hormones?
    within the cytosol or nucleus
  19. Where are the receptors located for water-soluble hormones?
    target cell's plasma membrane
  20. How are lipid-soluble hormones transported in the blood?
    transport proteins
  21. 3 functions of transport proteins
    • 1) make lipid-soluble proteins temporarily water-soluble (thereby increasing solubility in blood)
    • 2) retard passage of small hormone molecules through kidney filtering
    • 3) provide a ready reserve of hormone 
  22. cAMP as a second messenger
    • water-soluble H binds to membrane receptor
    • receptor activates G-protein
    • G-protein activates adenylate cyclase
    • adenylate cyclase converts ATP into cAMP
    • cAMP activates protein kinases 
    • protein kinases phosphorylate enzymes which catalyze reactions that produce physiological response 
  23. How does the 2nd messenger system amplify the hormonal effects?
    1 bound H activates many G-proteins, which activates many molecules of adenylate cyclase to convert several ATPs into cAMP
  24. symptoms of infection with cholera toxin
    massive watery diarrhea

    • toxin causes G protein to lock in activated state in intestinal epithelium 
    • cAMP causes intestinal cells to actively transport Cl- (Na+ & H2O follow) into lumen 
  25. permissive effect
    2nd H strengthens effects of first

    ex: thyroid & epi 
  26. synergistic effect
    2 H's act together for greater effect

    ex: estrogen & LH
  27. antagonistic effect
    2 H's with opposite effects 

    ex: insulin vs. glucagon
  28. receptor agonist
    chemical that binds to a receptor and mimics the action of a naturally occurring substance
  29. receptor antagonist
    chemical that binds to a receptor and blocks or dampens agonist-mediated responses
  30. anatomical location of the pituitary gland
    in the sella turcica of the sphenoid bone
  31. pituitary stalk that attaches pituitary to hypothalamus
    infundibulum
  32. hypophysis
    pituitary gland
  33. adenohypophysis
    anterior pituitary
  34. neurohypophysis
    posterior pituitary
  35. major integrating center for pituitary
    hypothalamus
  36. 5 cell types of adenohypophysis
    • 1) lactotrophs
    • 2) gonadotrophs
    • 3) somatotrophs
    • 4) thyrotrophs
    • 5) corticotriphs

    "lagstick" 
  37. hormone secreted by lactotrophs
    prolactin

    PFL H TAM
  38. 2 hormones secreted by gonadotrophs
    • FSH
    • LH

    PFL H TAM 
  39. hormone secreted by somatotrophs
    hGH

    PFL H TAM
  40. hormone secreted by thyrotrophs
    thyroid stimulating hormone

    PFL H TAM 
  41. 2 hormones secreted by corticotrophs
    • 1) ACTH (adrenocorticotrophic H)
    • 2) MSH (melanocyte-stimulating H) 
  42. 2 ways secretion of anterior pit. is regulated
    • 1) hypothalamic regulating hormones
    • 2) negative feedback  
  43. anterior pituitary blood supply
    • 1) superior hypophyseal arteries
    • 2) hypophyseal portal system 
  44. hypophyseal portal system function
    carry releasing factors from hypothalamus directly to pars distalis of anterior pit.
  45. 2 hormones of the neurohypophysis
    • 1) vasopressin (ADH)
    • 2) oxytocin 
  46. neurosecretory cell
    cells in paraventricular & supraoptic nuclei that secrete oxytocin & ADH into the posterior pituitary
  47. 2 oxytocin functions
    • 1) stimulates contraction of uterine smooth muscle cells during childbirth
    • 2) stimulates contraction of myoepithelial cells in mammary glands to cause milk ejection 
  48. 3 functions of ADH
    • 1) decrease urine volume (conserve body water)
    • 2) perspiration (decrease water loss)
    • 3) raise BP by constricting arterioles 
  49. 2 possible causes of diabetes insipidus
    • 1) hyposecretion of ADH
    • 2) nonfunctional ADH receptors 
  50. central diabetes insipidus
    inability to synthesize/secrete ADH
  51. nephrogenic diabetes insipidus
    failure of kidney to respond to ADH
  52. somatomedins
    • IGF's
    • produced by liver when stimulated by hGH
    • stimulates growth (cartilage proliferation) in childhood 
  53. gigantism
    • hGH excess in children
    • before growth plates close 
  54. acromegaly
    • hGH excess in adults
    • after growth plates close

    hunchback
  55. pituitary dwarfism
    hGH deficiency
  56. cretinism
    dwarfism as a result of thyroid H deficiency
  57. GH response to hypoglycemia
    • GHRH released to stimulate hGH by somatotrophs
    • hGH & IGFs speed up breakdown of glycogen into glucose, which enters the blood faster
    • blood glucose rises 
  58. GH response to hyperglycemia
    • GHIH released to inhibit secretion of hGH
    • low hGH & IGFs decreases rate of glycogen breakdown
    • blood glucose level falls 
  59. What cells produce melanocyte-stimulating H?
    corticotrophs

    lagstiCk & pfl h taM 
  60. location of thyroid
    below larynx
  61. structure of thyroid follicle
    center of colloid surrounded by follicular cells
  62. 2 types of thyroid cells
    • 1) principal/follicular cells
    • 2) C/parafollicular cells 
  63. What do principal cells secrete?
    thyroglobulin
  64. What do C cells secrete?
    calcitonin
  65. 2 major thyroid hormones
    • 1) T3 (triiodothyronine)
    • 2) T4 (thyroxine) 
  66. formation, storage, release of thyroid H (6 steps) 
    • 1) iodide trapping
    • 2) TGB synthesis
    • 3) oxidation of iodide & iodination of tyrosine
    • 4) T1 & T2 coupling
    • 5) pinocytosis & digestion of colloid
    • 6) secretion of thyroid Hs, & transport in blood 
  67. TRH
    thyrotropin releasing H

    • released in response to low T3/T4
    • stimulates release of TSH by thyrotrophs 
  68. 8 major actions of thyroid Hs
    • 1) increase basal metabolic rate
    • 2) stimulate synthesis of Na/K pumps
    • 3) stimulate protein synthesis
    • 4) increase body temp
    • 5) increase use of glucose & FAs for ATP synthesis
    • 6) stimulate lipolysis
    • 7) enhance some actions of catecholamines via  receptors to increase force/rate of heart contraction
    • 8) promote growth with GH & insulin 
  69. hyperthyroidism symptoms
    agitated, hyperactive
  70. hypothyroidism symptoms
    lethargic, mentally dull

    Hashimoto's disease 
  71. cause of Grave's disease
    Ab's produced mimic TSH, causing excess thyroid H secretion
  72. goiter
    enlargement of the thyroid
  73. most common reason for goiter
    inadequate dietary iodine

    leads to low levels of thyroid, causing stimulation of TSH 
  74. location of parathyroid
    embedded on posterior surfaces of lateral lobes of thyroid
  75. (4) functions of parathyroid H
    • 1) increase blood Ca & Mg, decreases HPO4
    • 2) increase bone resorption by osteoclasts
    • 3) increase Ca reabsorption & HPO4 excretion by kidneys
    • 4) promotes formation of calcitriol (active vit. D) -> increases rate of dietary Ca/Mg absorption
  76. What controls parathyroid H secretion?
    blood calcium level

    negative feedback loop not involving pituitary 
  77. location of adrenal glands
    superior to kidneys
  78. 3 zones of the adrenal cortex
    • 1) zona glomerulosa
    • 2) zona fasciculata
    • 3) zona reticularis
  79. hormone secreted by zona glomerulosa
    mineralocorticoids (aldosterone) 
  80. hormone secreted by zona fasciculata
    glucocorticoids (cortisol)
  81. hormone secreted by zona reticularis
    androgens (DHEA)
  82. major controlling factor of aldosterone secretion
    renin-angiotensin pathway

    angiotensin II, high plasma [K+] 
  83. major functions of aldosterone
    • increase blood levels of Na+ & H2O
    • decrease blood level of K+ 
  84. main functions of glucocorticoids
    • increase protein breakdown
    • stimulate stimulate gluconeogenesis & lipolysis
    • depress immune responses (anti-inflammatory)
  85. CRH
    corticotropin-releasing H

    • neurosecretory cell release stimulated by low cortisol blood levels
    • promotes release of ACTH

    negative feedback system 
  86. Cushing's syndrome
    • hypersecretion of cortisol
    • breakdown of muscle protein, redistribution of fat, poor wound healing

    • may be due to
    • 1) tumor in adrenal gland secreting cortisol, or
    • 2) tumor in pituitary gland secreting ACTH
  87. Addison's disease
    • autoimmune disease where adrenal cortex is destroyed
    • reduced cortisol & aldosterone secretion (hyposecretion)
    • life-threatening due to dehydration 
  88. effects of androgens released by zona reticularis
    • males: insignificant
    • females: sex drive; converted to estrogen in postmenopausal females
  89. location of pancreas
    posterior/inferior to stomach
  90. 4 cell types in pancreatic islets
    • 1) alpha cells (glucagon)
    • 2) beta cells (insulin)
    • 3) delta cells (somatostatin)
    • 4) F cells (pancreatic polypeptide) 
  91. regulation of glucagon & insulin secretion
    • low blood glucose: glucagon release
    • high blood glucose: insulin secretion

    negative feedback loop 
  92. diabetes mellitus symptoms
    inability to produce/use insulin

    • polyuria
    • polydipsia
    • polyphagia 
  93. Type I vs Type II diabetes mellitus
    • Type I: insulin dependent; absolute insulin deficiency
    • Type II: insulin-INdependent; down-reg of insulin receptors 
  94. 5 hormones involved in glucose regulation
    • 1) insulin
    • 2) glucagon
    • 3) cortisol
    • 4) catecholamines
    • 5) GH 
  95. location of pineal gland
    attached to 3rd ventricle of brain
  96. hormone secreted by pineal gland
    melatonin
  97. functions of pineal gland
    • setting biological clock
    • involved in jetlag/SAD

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