BIOL40C Ch. 28 Reproductive System

Card Set Information

Author:
daynuhmay
ID:
159732
Filename:
BIOL40C Ch. 28 Reproductive System
Updated:
2012-06-23 07:49:46
Tags:
Reproductive
Folders:

Description:
Reproductive
Show Answers:

Home > Flashcards > Print Preview

The flashcards below were created by user daynuhmay on FreezingBlue Flashcards. What would you like to do?


  1. gametes
    germ cells

    sperm, secondary oocytes
  2. gonads
    produce gametes & secrete sex hormones

    testes, ovaries
  3. fertilization
    produces one cell with one set of chromosomes from each parent
  4. 4 structions of male reproductive system
    • 1) testes
    • 2) ducts
    • 3) accessory sex glands
    • 4) supporting structures (penis)
  5. male system of ducts (4)
    • 1) ductus epididymis
    • 2) ductus deferens
    • 3) ejaculatory duct
    • 4) urethra 
  6. male accessory sex glands (3)
    • 1) seminal vescicles
    • 2) prostate gland
    • 3) bulbourethral glands 
  7. scrotum
    cutaneous outpouching of abdomen that supports the testes

    internally, divided into 2 sacs by a vertical septum 
  8. dartos muscle
    causes wrinkling of scrotum
  9. cremaster muscle
    elevates testes on exposure to cold & during arousal 
  10. testes
    paired, oval-shaped glands (gonads) housed in the scrotum

    contain seminiferous tubules 
  11. seminiferous tubules
    where sperm cells are made
  12. 3 cells of the testes
    • 1) spermatogenic cells (sperm forming)
    • 2) Sertoli cells (nourish sperm cells)
    • 3) Leydig cells (secrete testosterone)
  13. cryptorchidism
    failure of testes to descend

    untreated, can result in sterility & increased risk of testicular cancer
  14. spermatogenesis
    spermatogia (2n) -> mitosis -> primary spermatocytes (2n) -> meiosis I -> secondary spermatocytes (n) -> meiosis II -> spermatids (n) -> spermiogenesis -> spermiation
  15. spermiogenesis
    maturation of spermatids into sperm
  16. spermiation
    release of a sperm from its connection to a Sertoli cell
  17. How many sperm are produced each day, and what is their lifespan?
    • 300M
    • 48hrs 
  18. pathway of sperm through the ducts (6) 
    • 1) seminiferous tubules
    • 2) straight tubules
    • 3) rete testis
    • 4) efferent ducts
    • 5) ductus epididymis
    • 6) vas deferens 
  19. GnRH
    • gonadotropin releasing hormone
    • stimulates anterior pituitary secretion of
    • 1) FSH (initiates spermatogenesis) &
    • 2) LH (assists spermatogenesis, stimulates production of testosterone by Leydig cells)

    secreted by hypothalamus 
  20. inhibin
    • produced by Sertoli cells
    • inhibits FSH (regulates rate of spermatogenesis)
  21. testosterone
    • secreted by Leydig cells
    • decreases release of GnRH & LH
    • stimulated by LH 
  22. purpose of prostaglandins in seminal fluid
    contribute to sperm motility
  23. semenogelin
    main protein that causes coagulation of semen after ejaculation
  24. prostate gland secretion
    • milky, slightly acidic
    • contains citric acid & proteolytic enzymes 
  25. PSA
    • prostate specific antigen
    • amount increases with enlargement of prostate
    • used in blood test to detect prostate cancer 
  26. germinal epithelium
    • covers  surface of ovary
    • doesn't give rise to ova 
  27. tunica albuginea
    connective tissue capsule deep to germinal epithelium
  28. ovarian cortex
    contains ovarian follicles
  29. ovarian medulla
    contains blood vessels, lymphatics, & nerves
  30. ovarian follicles
    lie in cortex & consist of oocytes in various stages of development
  31. corpus luteum
    • contains remnants of an ovulated follicle 
    • produces progesterone, estrogens, relaxin, & inhibin until it degenerates
    • "ovulation wound" 
  32. corpus albicans
    degenerated corpus luteum 
  33. ovarian cyst
    fluid filled sac in or on an ovary
  34. oogenesis
    oogonium (2n) -> primary oocyte (2n) -> meiosis I -> secondary oocyte (n) & first polar body -> meiosis II -> (fertilization)
  35. uterine tube
    narrow, 4in tube extending from ovary to uterus
  36. infundibulum
    open, funnel-shaped portion of uterine tube near ovary
  37. isthmus (uterine tube)
    narrowest portion of uterine tube joins uterus
  38. 3 layers of uterine tube
    • 1) internal mucosa (ciliated columnar)
    • 2) middle muscularis (circular/longitudinal)
    • 3) outer serosa 
  39. 4 functions of uterine tube
    • 1) fimbriae sweep oocyte into tube
    • 2) cilia/peristalsis move oocyte along
    • 3) sperm reaches oocyte in ampulla, fertilization occurs w/in 24 hours
    • 4) zygote reaches uterus 7 days after ovulation 
  40. 5 functions of uterus
    • 1) transport of spermatozoa
    • 2) menstruation
    • 3) implantation of fertilized ovum
    • 4) development of fetus during pregnancy
    • 5) labor 
  41. prolapse of uterus
    downward displacement of uterus
  42. hysterectomy
    surgical removal of uterus

    • complete: removes body & cervix of uterus
    • radical: removes uterus, tubes, ovaries, part of vagina, pelvic lymph nodes, & supporting ligaments 
  43. endometriosis
    • growth of endometrial tissue outside of uterus
    • due to proliferation in response to hormonal changes 
  44. fibrocystic breast disease
    • thickening of alveoli, one or more cysts develop
    • caused by hormonal imbalance 
  45. breast cancer risk factors (5)
    • 1) family history
    • 2) never having child, or after 35
    • 3) previous cancer in one breast
    • 4) exposure to ionization radiation (xrays)
    • 5) excessive alcohol intake, cigarette smoking 
  46. estrogens
    • secreted by ovarian follicles
    • feminine structures
    • inhibit release of GnRH, FSH, LH
    • lower blood cholesterol 
  47. progesterone
    • secreted mainly by cells of corpus luteum
    • works with estrogens to prepare endometrium for implantation
    • prepares mammary glands to secrete  milk
    • inhibits release of GnRH, LH 
  48. relaxin
    • released by corpus luteum
    • inhibits contractions of uterine smooth muscle
    • during labor, increases flexibility of pubic symphysis & dilates uterine cervix 
  49. inhibin (female)
    • secreted by granulosa of growing follicles & by corpus luteum after ovulation
    • inhibits release of FSH, and (some) LH 
  50. menstrual phase
    first 5 days

    primordial follicles develop into primary & secondary follicles 

    50-150mL blood from (stratum functionalis) endometrium shed (2-5mm remains)
  51. preovulatory phase
    days 6-13

    • "Follicular Phase"
    • some secondary follicles begin to secrete estrogens & inhibin (-> decrease FSH)
    • 1 Graafian follicle develops
    • increasing estrogen triggers secretion of LH
    •  
    • repair of endometrium (4-10mm), new stratum functionalis
  52. ovulatory phase
    day 14

    • rupture of Graafian follicle
    • GnRH promotes release of FSH & LH by ant. pit.
    • LH surge brings about ovulation
    •  
  53. postovulatory phase
    days 16-28

    • "Luteal Phase"
    • estrogen, progesterone secreted in large quantities

    • thickening of endometrium (12-18mm)
    • formation of more endometrial glands & vascularization
  54. amenorrhea
    • absence of menstruation
    • hormone imbalance, extreme weight loss/low body fat
  55. dysmenorrhea
    pain associated with menstruation

    uterine tumors, ovarian cysts, endometriosis, intrauterine device 
  56. causes of abnormal uterine bleeding
    • fibroid tumors
    • hormonal imbalance
  57. trophoblast
    layer covering blastocyst
  58. gastrulation
    beginning of the formation of organ systems
  59. morula
    solid mass of cells produced by successive cleavages of a zygote
  60. blastomere
    cells produced by cleavage of zygote
  61. ectoderm
    cells of inner cell mass on amniotic cavity

    leads to epidermis of skin & nervous system 
  62. endoderm
    cells on border of amnion

    leads to epithelial lining of GI & respiratory 
  63. embryonic (bilaminar) disk
    ectoderm & endoderm together
  64. mesoderm
    leads to muscle, bone, & other connective tissues

    middle germ layer

What would you like to do?

Home > Flashcards > Print Preview