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__ spend their life studying all arthropods throught the world
__ total blood loss by parasites faster than bone marrow can replace them working at a normal replacement rate. Super parasitizm
__ total blood loss due to natural means without normal replacement at a normal rate by the bone marrow. Bone marrow depression due to toxic effects of drugs or cancerous in marrow
Many arthropods bites are toxic and result in __ reactions that are fatal or at least paralytic
Tick paralysis results in __ while rabies results in __
- tick- ascending
- rabies- decending
_ flies and _ flies can bother the animal to the point it cannot feed anymore, loosing weight and becomes an economical disaster for the rancher
Horn flies and back flies
Every 1st stage larvae is referred to as...
Skin invasions by penetrating maggots (1st stage larvae) can make available opportunities for __ to invade the skin and set up fulminating infections
__ no multipcation or molting of the etiological agent in the vector
what is another name for mechanical vector?
__ molting in the intermediate host
what is another name for biological vector?
__ are the most vector or arthropod borne animal plagues
This is any infection by larvae any Genus and species, as the diagnosis is often made on typical location of the location of the flies or their wounds
Myiasis is generally easy to control with fly sprays and is not urgent, the exception being __ whose eggs laid can hatch over night and larvae can be inside the host in 24 hours
Cochliomyia hominivorax, the american screwworm
What are some tick borne protozoan disease?
Bovine piroplasmosis and Canine piroplasmosis
What is the etiological agent for Bovine piroplasmosis?
Babesia bigemina, and Babesia bovis
What is the vector for Bovine piroplasmosis?
Boophilus annulatus (one host tick)
What is the etiology agent for Canine Piroplasmosis?
What is the vector for Canine piroplasmosis?
Rhipicephallus sanquineus (3 host tick)
What are some tick borne rickettsial disease?
- Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever
- Q fever
What is the etiology for Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever?
What are some etiologies for Ehrlichiosis?
Ehrilichia canis(vietanum disease), E. chaffeensis, E. ewingii, E. ruminantium
Of comparative medical interest, cats, dogs, and humans as well as other domestic and wild animal species, can all be infected with the same __ species.
Although the clinicopathologic courst of disase will vary depending upon the infecting Ehrlichia species, illness is typically characterized by:
- acute reduction in cellular blood elements, most often thrombocytopenia.
- Bleeding is symptomatic since epistaxis is the first observation noted.
Ehrilichia canis was first recognized in __ (place and year)
Ehrilichia canis was first reported in the United States in __
The distribution of E. canis infection is related to the geographic distribution of the vector tick __
What are some clinical signs of ehrlichiosis in the acute phase?
- severe loss of stamina
- weight loss
- ocular and nasal discharges
- edema of the limbs
What are some clinical signs of ehrlichiosis in the chronic phase?
signs can be mild to absent
What are some hematologic abnormalities involved with Ehrlichiosis?
- aplastic anemia
__ is the most consistent hematologica abnormality in both the acute and chronic stages of ehrlichiosis
__ causes an ovine encephalomyelitis
Louping ill is transmitted by:
What are some signs of Louping ill?
neurological in nature
Western equine Encephalitis is transmitted by the __
__ is caused by Francisella tularenis
Tularemia is caused by?
__ gram negative, rod found in sheep, like louping ill, are the primary host, sometimes used as terrosist agent
What is Tularemia transmitted by?
Dermacentors and Amblyomma
__ are fastidious gram negative bacteria that are highly adapted to a mammals red blood cell becoming a life long intraerythrocutic bacteremia.
Bartonella henselae was defined as a new species in __ (year)
In 1993 __ (berkoffi) was isolated from a dog with endocarditis
What does the tick of transmittion for canine Bartonellosis seems to be?
What are the most commonly detected hematologic abnormalities for Canine Bartonellosis?
- neutrophilic leukocytosis
What is the treatment for Canine Bartonellosis?
antibiotics for a very long period of time
What is the drug(s) of choice for Canine Bartonellosis?
Macrolides(erythromycin and azithromycin) for 4 to 6 weeks
__ is a vector borne disease affecting people and animals; it is most commonly diagnosed in North America, Europe and Asia
__ are small spirochetes of a Genus that contains more than 20 species
The Lyme Borrelia have been divided into at least __ genomic species groups
in North America __ is the most common lyme disease
Borrelia do not survive free living in the environment and are transmitted between __ and __
Verterbrate host and the tick
Borrelia burgdorferi must feed for __ hours to be infective and allow for the etiological agent to get into the salivary glands.
(year) the outbreak of lyme disease in Old Lyme, Connecticut
(year) the spirochete (bacteria) was discovered in the tick Ixodes scapularis (formerly Ixodes dammini)
(year) first canine disease of lyme arthritis reported, followed by cardiac and renal cases
(year) lyme disease reported in 45 of the lower 48 states and is endemic on the east and west coast as well as the upper midwest
(year) lyme disease is reported in 48 adjurning states
The prinicpal vector for Borrelia burgdorferi is the __ ticks
- Ixodes sp.
- Ixodes ricini
- Ixodes scapularis(primary vector)
- I. dammini
- Ixodes pacificus(west coast)
What is the pathogenesis of lyme disease?
Borrelia burgdorferi multiplies in the tick and localizes in the salive, Tick takes blood meal injecting the bacteria (spirochete)
What are some symptoms of Lyme disease?
- verified tick bite
- flulike symptoms (chills with head and back ache)
- A positive blood test immunoblot
- bruise like rash known as "Erythema migrans" (often referred to as a bulls eye)
What is the treatment for lyme disease?
antibiotic Doxycycline-- often for extended periods of time
What is the mosquito borne protozoa disease?
What is the mosquito borne virus disease?
Easter Equine Encephalomyelitis
What is the mosquito borne filariids disease?
Heartworm disease- dirofilaria immitis
What is the flea borne diease?
- Bubonic plague(bacteria)
- Acanthochelonema reconditum (blood filarid)
- Diplydium caninum
What is the etiology for Bubonic plague?
All true flies that we will discuss are of the order __
All adult flies, except __ (family) have a pair of well developed wings located midway on the body at the mesothoracic area
The anterior pair on the metathoracic area are nothing more than __
What are the two forms of flies that exist:
- Aquatic-- primitive
- Terrestrial-- highly adaptive
What are the 3 groups that belong to the sub order: Orthorrhapha?
What is included in the Family Culicidae?
mosquitoes, sandflies, blackflies and midgies
What is included in the family Tabanidae?
horseflies, deer flies
What is included in group- Cyclorrhapha "most important"
- Oestridae (bots)
- Cuterebridae (bots)
- Calliphoridae (blow flies)
- Sarcophagidae (flesh flies)
- Hypodermatidae (bots & heel flies)
- Gasterophilidae (bots)
- Muscidae (house flies)
The family Muscidae, contains the 4 genuses, what are they?
- Musca (house and face fly)
- Stomoxys (stable fly)
- Haematobia (horn fly)
- Glossina (Tsetse fly)
__ the most primitive of the suborder Orthorrhapha, antennae are long, many segmented and hairy. Made up of the gnats and the primary pathogen, the mosquitoe
__ some what more advanced than the primitive Nematocerca and belonging to the sub-order Orthorrhapha, they are stout and heavy built.
Noteworthy members of the family __ are comprised of horseflies and deerflies, neither of which bear heavily on the pathology of our domestic patients
the group __ is the primary pathological transport artist of the Orthorrhaphas
__ when at rest in the environement their mouthparts project from the head at a right angle
What are some thelazia's of interest?
- Thelazia lacrymalis
- Thelazia skrjabini
- Thelazia gulosa
- Thelazia californiensis
slightly less than __% of the horses surveyed in Kentucky were found infected with Thelazia lacrymalis
What families are refered to as "bots"
What is the lifecycle of suborder Orthorrhaphas, Group-Namatocera, Family- Culicidae?
- 1. Egg is laid on water. Hatch in days. Air breathers
- 2. Larvae molts 4 times ending in pupae stage
- 3. Pupae develops into adult mosquitoes
What are three stages of insects:
- imago (adult)
__ are biological vectors for yellow fever, malaria, eastern equine encephalitis, Dirofilaria immits
What is the lifecycle for the sub-order Orthorrhaphas, Group-Cyclorrhapha, Family- Muscidae(Musca domestica)
- 1. egg is laid on manure or organic material
- 2. 1st stage larvae emerge is 1-2 days
- 3. 1st stage larvae molts twice into 3rd stage
- 4. 3rd stage moves to dry medium and pupates
- 5. Pupa (4th stage) will mature to adult in 2-3 weeks
What is the lifecycle for Musca autumnalis?
- 1. eggs are deposited in cattle droppings
- 2. Eggs hatch and larvae emerge
- 3. The larvae molt to pupae and imago
- 4. Imago fly away and continue life cycle
Musca autumnalis serve as __ vectors for Thelazia lacrymalis for cattle and especially horses
What is the lifecycle for the Family- Muscidae, Stomoxys calcitrans?
- 1. flies feed on blood from horses primarily numerous times spreading blood borne viruses
- 2. The reproduce laying eggs in the grass where they hatch and molt to the imago
What is the lifecycle for Family Muscidae, Haematobia irritans?
- 1. flies live on back and suck blood leaving their host only to lay eggs in the feces
- 2. larvae hatch immediately and feed on feces
- 3. pupation occurs in 4-5 days
- 4. Adult (imago) development in 11-12 days
What belong to the family Calliphoridae?
What is the lifecycle for the family Culcidae (the mosquitoes)?
- 1. egg is laid on water, hatch in days. air breathers
- 2. larvae molts 4 times ending in pupae stage
- three stages: larvae, pupae, imago (adult)
What are mosquito biological vectors for?
yellow fever, malaria, eastern equine encephalitis, dirofilaria immits