Nervous and Muscular tissue and membranes

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  1. Membrane
    are flat sheets of pliable tissue that cover or line a part of the body
  2. epithelial membrane
    consists of an epithelial layer overlying a connective tissue layer.  Examples are mucous, serous and cutaneous membranes
  3. Mucous membrane
    line cavities that open to the exterior, such as the gastrointestinal tract
  4. serous membranes
    line closed cavities (pleura, pericardium, peritoneum) and cover the organs in the cavities.  These membranes consist of parietal and visceral layers
  5. Synovial membrane
    line joint cavities , bursae and tendon sheaths and consiste of areolar connective tissue instead of epithelium
  6. cutaneous membrane
    • otherwise known as skin covers the entire surface of the body and consists of a superficial portion called the epidermis and the deeper portione called the dermis. 
    • the epidermis is made of:
    • keratanized stratified squamous epitheluem, which protects underlying tissue. 
  7. Muscular tissue
    consists of cells called  muscle fibers that are specialized for contraction.  It provides motion, maintenance of posture, heat production and protection.
  8. Skeletal muscle tissue
    is attached to the bones and is striated and voluntary
  9. Cardiac muscle tissue
    • forms most of the heart wall and is striated, is involuntary
    • cardiac muscle fibers are branched.  They attach end to end by transverse thickenings of the plasma membrane called intercalated discs- Which contain both desmosomes and gap junctions
  10. smooth muscle tissue
    is found in the walls of hollow internal structures(blood vessels and viscera) and is nonstriated and involuntary
  11. Nervous tissue
    Description: consists of neurons (nerve cells) and neuroglia.

    Functions: Exhibits sensitivity to various types of stimuli, converts stimuli into nerve impulses (action potentials), and conducts nerve impulses to other neurons, muscle fibers or glands. 
  12. neuron
    • or nerve cells, convert stimuli into electrical signals called action potential.
    • Three basic parts- A cell body and two kinds of cell processes = Dendrites and axons

    • Cell body = containts the nucleus and organellles
    • Dendrites = are tapering, highly branched, and usually short cell processess.  They are the major receiving or input portion of the neuron
    • Axon= of a neuron is a single, thin, cylindrical process that may be very long.  It is the output portion 
  13. neuroglia
    nervous tissue cell with important supportive functions
  14. Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE)
    lupus is a chronic inflammatory disease of connective tissue occuring mostly in nonwhite women.  It is an autoimmune disease that can cause tissue damage in every body system.
  15. Atrophy
    A decrease in size of cells, with a subsequent decrease in the size of the affected tissue or organ
  16. Hypertrophy
    increase in the size of a tissue because its cells enlarge without undergoing cell division
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Nervous and Muscular tissue and membranes
Nervous and Muscular tissue and membranes
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