S3M2 cancer

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Author:
sweetlu
ID:
159793
Filename:
S3M2 cancer
Updated:
2012-07-05 20:59:06
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S3M2 cancer
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S3M2 cancer
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  1. mitotic activity
    • - metaphase and anaphase counted
    • Low grade: 3-5 mitoses/10 HPF
    • Mid grade: 5-15 mitoses
    • High grade: >15 mitoses
  2. Atypia
    • cellular atypia: only seen in malignant tumors
    • - pleiomorphism (size and shape var)
    • - increased nucleo/cytoplasmic ration (norm= 1:5)
    • tissue atypia: seen in benign and malignant 
    • - abnormal formations
    • - changes in parenchyma/stroma ratio
    • - loss of polarity
  3. carcinoma in situ
    • - NOT a true cancer
    • - no BM penetration
    • - severe dysplasia 
  4. microinvasion
    • - < 5mm invasion into surrounding tissue
    • - good prognosis 
  5. Benign v. malignant tumor
    - local growth
    - matastasis ability
    - growth rate
    - differentiation
    - Atypia (tissue and cellular)
    - recurrece
    - host effects 
  6. perineural spread
    • - spread along peripheral nerves to spinal cord
    • - prostate and pancreatic carcincomas 
  7. Krukenberg tumor
    • bilateral ovary-located metastases of gastric and colonic mucus- producing adenocarcinoma
    • - multiple metastases seen on gross examination of ovaries and even uterus 
  8. cachexia
    • - anorexia, loss of body fat, loss of skeletal muscle, profound weakness, anemia
    • - lung and advanced GI carcinoma 
    • - TNF-alpha caused (postulated) 
  9. ectopic hormone production
    • - seen in paraneoplastic syndrome
    • - lung, renal (and breast) most often
    • - hypercalcemia, SIADH, Cushing syndrom, polycytopenia 
  10. most common cancer in immunocompromised
    diffuse large B-cell lymphoma
  11. most common cause of death in cancer
     
    - secondary infection (bronchopneumonia)
  12. Tumor antigens of immunodiagnosis
    aFT
    CEA
    Mucin
    CDs
    • alpha-fetoprotein- hepatocellular carcinoma
    • carcinoembrionic antigen- colon and pancreas
    • Mucin CA 19-9: colon and pancreas
    • Mucin CA-125: ovarian carcinoma
    • Clusters of determination: leukemias and lymphomas
  13. Grading
    • tumor agressiveness
    • based on degree of differentiation, growth rate and cellular atypia 
  14. Staging
    • based on tumor size and spread
    • **greater clinical value**
    • **any metatastases= stage 4**
  15. AJC staging

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