PSY 430 Exam 4

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PSY 430 Exam 4
2012-06-25 03:09:12
Biosocial Development Cognitive Psychosocial

Ch. 8, 9, 10
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  1. The body and brain develop according to powerful environmental forces (4)
    Biologically Driven

    Socially Guided

    Experience - Expectant

    Experience - Dependant     
  2. (4) Growth patterns from age 2-6
    become slimmer as lower body lengthens

    baby fat replaced by muscle

    gain about 4.5 lbs/year

    add 3in/year for height       
  3. Growth influenced by ___, ___, ___, and ___



    Psychological factors   
  4. Growth patterns for a 6yo
    between 40-50 lbs

    at least 3.5 ft tall

    looks lean not chubby

    legs make up about half of body proportion       
  5. Appetite in young children (+/-); because they need far (+/-) calories/lb of body weight
    decreases / fewer
  6. Most children in developed countries consume more than enough calories and not enough
    iron, zinc, and calcium
  7. By age ___ most neurons are connected to other neurons.  The weight of the brain is ___% of what it will be in adulthood
    2 yo

  8. Proliferation of the communication pathways (dendrites and axons) results in brain growth, but most growth occurs of ___
  9. process by which axons become coated with myelin, a fatty substance, that speeds the transmission of nerve impulses from neuron to neuron
  10. long band of nerve fibers that connect the left and right hemispheres of the brain
    corpus callosum
  11. the specialization of certain functions by each side of the brain
  12. area in the front part of the brain's outer layer under the forehead

    -underlies higher-order cognition

    -planning and complex forms of goal-directed behavior   
    Prefrontal Cortex
  13. Maturation of the prefrontal cortex from age 2-6
    sleep becomes more regular

    temper tantrums subside

    uncontrollable laughter and tears become less common

    emotions become more neuanced and responsive to specific stimuli     
  14. Neurons have 2 kinds of impulses
    to activate (act)

    to inhibit (not act) 
  15. the tendency to stick to one thought/action for a long time  
  16. system which controls expression and emotion regulation
    Limbic System
  17. 3 major areas of the limbic system


  18. tiny brain structure that registers emotion

    - fear and anxiety 
  19. brain structure that is the central processor of memory

    - especially for locations

    - also memories of fears
  20. brain area that responds to the amygdala and the hippocampus to produce hormones that activate other parts of the brain and body
  21. motor skills that involve large body movement
    gross motor skills
  22. motor skills that involve small body movement (especially those of the hands and fingers) 
    fine motor skills
  23. Fine motor skills typically mature earlier in ___ than ___.

    Dependent on development of ___ ___
    girls / boys

    muscle control 
  24. More children die of ___, than any other cause 
  25. practices aimed at anticipating, controling, and preventing dangerous activities 
    injury control/harm reduction
  26. 3 levels of prevention
    Primary Prevention - prevent

    Secondary Prevention - avert high-risk situation 

    Tertiary Prevention - after   
  27. actions that change conditions to prevent some unwanted event/circumstances

    - injury, disease, abuse 
    Primary Prevention
  28. actions that avert harm in high risk situations

    - stopping a car before hitting a pedestrian
    Secondary Prevention
  29. actions taken after an adverse event

    - immediate and effective medical treatment  
    Tertiary Prevention
  30. intentional harm or avoidable endangerment of anyone under 18yrs old
    Child Maltreatment
  31. deliberate action harmful to child's physical, emotional, or sexual well-being
    Child Abuse
  32. failure to meet child's basic physical, educational, or emotional needs
    child neglect
  33. Often 1st signs of maltreatment is delayed development: (4)
    slow growth

    immature communication

    lack of curiosity

    unusual social interaction     
  34. delayed reaction to trauma or shock
    Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)
  35. PTSD may include: (7)


    Displaced Anger


    Sudden Terror


    Confusion between fantasy and reality           
  36. effort by child-welfare authorities to find long-term living situation that will provide stability and support for maltreaded child
    Permanency Planning
  37. legal, publicly supported system in which a maltreated child is removed from the parents' cutody and entrusted to another adult or family
    Foster Care
  38. form of foster care in which a relative of a maltreated child becomes approved care-giver
    Kinship Care
  39. legal proceeding in which an adult or couple unrelated to a child is granted joys and obligations of being child's parent(s)
  40. Piaget: cognitive development between the ages of about 2-6. "Pre-logical"

    - symbollic thought

    - magical imagination   
    Preoperational Intelligence
  41. 4 characteristics of thinking in early childhood which make logic difficult  

    focus on appearance

    static reasoning

  42. characteristic of preoperational thought in which a young child focuses on one idea
  43. children's tendency to think about the world entirely from their own personal perspective

    - "self-centered" 
  44. characteristic of preoperational thought where young child ignores all attributes that are not apparent
    Focus on Appearance
  45. thinking that nothing changes

    - "whatever is now, has always been, and will always be" 
    Static Reasoning
  46. idea that nothing can be undone

    - inability to recognize that something can be restored 
  47. belief that natural objects are alive
  48. idea that the amount of a substance remains the same when appearance changes
  49. 1st leading developmentalist to emphasize social aspect about early cognition
    young children are not always egocentriccan also be very

    sensitive to the wishes and emotions of others
  50. skills a person can exercise only with assistance

    - ideas or cognitive skills a person is close to mastering as well as to more apparent skills
    Zone of Proximal Development (ZDP)
  51. temporary support tailored to a learner's needs and abilities

    - aimed at helping master next task 
  52. internal dialogue that occurs when people talk to themselves

    - silent or out loud 
    Private Speech
  53. function of speech where person's cognitive skills are refined and extended

    - both formal instruction and casual conversation 
    Social Mediation
  54. idea that children attempt to explain everything they see and hear by constructing theories
  55. person's theory of what other people might be thinking

    - must realize other people are not thinking the same thoughts that they are

    - Scientific American "A Change of Mind"   
    Theory of Mind
  56. There is a sensitive period for learning language due to: (3)
    brain maturation


    social interaction 
  57. Early childhood is a sensitive period for rapidly and easily mastering:


  58. Basics of language learning apply to every language a young child learns: (5)

    vocabulary explosion



    extensive practice       
  59. debate over bilingual education inseperable from issues of (4)

    These issues get in the way of objective developmental research 
    ethnic pride



  60. Children who speak 2 languages by age 5 are ___ egocentric and ___ advanced in their theory of mind
    less / more
  61. Early educational institutions (4)

    nursery school

    day care

  62. Each early-childhood educational program emphasizes somewhat different ___, ___, and ___


  63. Child Centered (education): programs that stress children's development and growth
    Montessori Schools

    The Reggio Emilia Approach
  64. Teacher Directed (education)
    Head Start and Intervention Programs
  65. Child-centered programs that use a Piaget-inspired model allows children to discover ideas at ___ pace
    their own
  66. child-centered programs also encourage artistic expression
    - physical space and materials
  67. - puzzles
  68. - blocks of many sizes
  69. - toys
  70. learning ___ is the preeminent psychosocial accomplishment between ages 2 and 6
    when and how to express emotions
  71. ability to control when and how emotions are expressed 

    may not be learned if parents dismiss child's emotional expressions
    emotional regulation
  72. made possible by a longer attention span

    - saying something new

    - extending a skill

    - beginning a project
  73. ___ makes a child afraid to try new activities
  74. person's evaluation of his or her own worth

    - "how do I compare to others?"

    - Intelligence


    - Overall   
  75. preschoolers usually have ___ self-esteem
  76. person's understanding of who he or she is in relation to (who am I?)

    - self-esteem

    - personality

    - various traits
  77. Between shame and guilt, ___ is a more mature emotion than ___
    Guilt / Shame
  78. Between shame and guilt, ___ comes from within the person
  79. ___ can be based on what one is, rather than on something one has done

    comes from outside and depends on others' awareness
  80. drive or reason to pursue a goal that comes from inside a person

    - the need to feel smart or competent
    Intrinsic Motivation
  81. drive or reason to pursue a goal that arises from the need to have one's achievements rewarded from outside

    - receiving material posessions or another person's esteem
    Extrinsic Motivation
  82. expressing powerful feelings through uncontrolled physical or verbal outbursts
    Externalizing Problems
  83. turning one's emotional distress inward

    - feeling excessively guilty, ashamed, worthless
    Internalizing Problems
  84. most productive and enjoyable activity that children undertake

    - universal

    - changes between ages 2 and 6   
  85. young children play best with ___
  86. playing with peers provides practice in (3)
    emotional regulation


    social understanding 
  87. ___ is an ideal means for kids to learn whatever social skills are required in the social context
  88. 5 types of play
    Solitary Play

    Onlooker Play

    Parallel Play

    Associative Play

    Cooperative Play       
  89. child plays alone, unaware of any other children playing nearby
    Solitary Play
  90. child watches other children play
    onlooker play
  91. children play with similar toys in similar ways, but not together
    parallel play
  92. children interact, observing each other and sharing material, but not mutual and reciprocal
    associative play
  93. children play together, creating and elaborating a joint activity or taking turns
    cooperative play
  94. type of play that mimics aggression through:

    - wrestling

    - chasing

    - hitting

    - no intent to harm        
    Rough-and-Tumble Play
  95. play that allows children to:

    - rehearse social roles 

    - test their ability to explain and to convince

    - practice regulating their emotions

    - develop a self-concept       
    Sociodramatic play
  96. 3 Patterns of Parenting


  97. pattern of parenting characterized by high behavioral standards, strict punishment of misconduct, and little communication
  98. pattern of parenting characterized by high nurturance and communication but little discipline, guidance, or control

    children lack self-control and are the least happy 
  99. Pattern of parenting characterized by parents who set limits but listen to the child and are flexible
  100. 4th style of parenting

    sometimes mistaken for permissive; but this type of parenting is very careless

    parents are strikingly unaware in what their child is doing   
    Neglectful/Uninvolved Parenting
  101. The ___ development and theory of ___ make morality possible
    emotional / mind
  102. ability to understand emotions and concerns of another person

    activated by mirror neurons 
  103. feelings of dislike or even hatred for another
  104. feelings and actions that are deliberately hurtful or destructive to another
    Antisocial Behavior
  105. hurtful behavior intended to get or keep something that another has
    Instrumental aggression
  106. impulsive retaliation for another person's intentional or accidental action
    Reactive Aggression
  107. nonphysical acts aimed at harming social connection between victim and others
    Relational Aggression
  108. unprovoked, repeated physical or verbal attack, esp. those who are unlikely to defend themselves
    Bullying Aggression
  109. disciplinary technique involving threatening to withdraw love and support

    Relies on child's feelings of guilt and gratitude to parents

    Social punishment   
    Psychological Control
  110. disciplinary technique in which a child is separated from other people for a specified time
  111. biological differences between males and females
    sex differences
  112. differences in the roles and behavior of males and females prescribed by the culture
    gender differences
  113. Freud's 3rd stage of development (ages 3-6)

    Penis becomes the focus of concern and pleasure 
    Phallic Stage
  114. unconscious desire of young boys to replace their father and win mother's exclusive love
    Oedipus Complex
  115. Judgmental part of the personality that internalizes the moral standards of the parents
  116. Unconscious desire of girls to replace their mothers and win their father's exclusive love
    Electra Complex
  117. attempt to defend one's self-concept by taking on behaviors and attitudes of someone else; specifically the same-sex parent
  118. Belief that all roles are learned and therefore result from nurture, not nature

    Gender distinctions are the product of ongoing reinforcement and punishment 
  119. Cognitive concept or general belief based on one's experiences
    Gender Schema
  120. balance within a person of traditionally male and female psychological characteristics
  121. Media Effects

    ___ ___ development may be slowed due to fewer opportunities for real life problem solving
    Frontal Lobe