Card Set Information

2012-06-24 04:48:07
Medical Definitions

A list of words that came up in Phase 1 and their meanings
Show Answers:

  1. Aponeurosis
    are layers of flat broad tendons. They have a shiny, whitish-silvery color, are histologically similar to tendons, and are very sparingly supplied with blood vessels and nerves
  2. Aponeurosis
    A flattened fibrous membrane, similar to a tendon, that binds muscles together or connects them to bone
  3. Pubic tubercle
    The pubic tubercle is a bony projection at the lateral end of the pubic crest. It gives attachment to the medial end of inguinal ligament.
  4. Pubic crest
    The flattened body of the pubis has outer and pelvic surfaces. Its thickened superior border is referred to as the pubic crest.
  5. Pubic symphysis
    Or symphysis pubis is the midline cartilaginous joint (secondary cartilaginous) uniting the superior rami of the left and right pubic bones.
  6. Gene
    A linear collection of DNA sequences required to produce a functional RNA molecule
  7. Locus
    The orecise location of a gene on a chromosome
  8. Diploid
    The chromosome number of somatic cells
  9. Haploid
    The chromosome number in gametes
  10. Sex-linked
    inheritance of a gene carried on a sex chromosome
  11. Genotype
    the gentic constitution of the organism
  12. Mitosis
    Somatic Cell division, t for twins
  13. Meiosis
    reduction cell division, which occurs in gamete production
  14. Somatic Cell
    Any cell of a living organism other than the reproductive cells.
  15. Phenotype
    the outward appearance of an individual
  16. Karyotype
    A standard arrangement of the chromosome complement done for chromosome analysis. For example, a normal human female karyotype would have 22 pairs of autosomes (non-sex chromosomes) arranged in numerical order together with two X chromosomes. The term "karyogram" is a less used synonym for a karyotype.
  17. FISH
    (fluorescence in situ hybridization) hybridisation using a probe (usually fluorescently labelled DNA) to bind to specific regions of chromosomes
  18. Hybridisation
    the binding of a nuclei acid sequences through complementary base pairing
  19. Organelle
    Any of a number of organized or specialized structures within a living cell.
  20. Organelle
    a structural and functional unit, such as a mitochondrion, in an eukaryotic cell.
  21. Recombination
    In genetics, recombination occurs during meiosis when chromosomes exchange genes.
  22. Recombination
    The process or act of exchanges of genes between chromosomes, resulting in a different genetic combination and ultimately to the formation of unique gametes with chromosomes that are different from those in parents.
  23. Karyotype
    the chromosomes of a cell, usually displayed as a systematized arrangement of chromosome pairs in descending order of size.
  24. Nomenclature
    A system of naming and identifying things in science
  25. Ligand
    An ion, a molecule, or a molecular group that binds to another chemical entity to form a larger complex.
  26. Fissure
    Cracklike groove on an organ's surface, or a lesion resembling a crack
  27. Stem Cell
    An unspecialized cell characterized by the ability to self-renew by mitosis while in undifferentiated state, and the capacity to give rise to various differentiated cell types by cell differentiation.
  28. Progenitor Cell
    In development a parent cell that gives rise to a distinct cell lineage by a series of cell divisions.
  29. Precursor Cell
    In cytology, a precursor cell, also called a blast cell or simply blast, is a type of partially differentiated, usually unipotent cell that has lost most or all of the stem cell multipotency. Usually precursor cells are cells capable of differentiating into one or two closely related final forms. Sometimes precursor cell is used as an alternative term for multipotent stem cells. A blastoma is a type of cancer created by malignancies of precursor cells. In embryology, precursor cells are group of cells that differentiate later into one organ.
  30. Effector Cell
    a terminally differentiated leukocyte that performs one or more specific functions. T cells which carry out immune functions, namely, helper T cells and cytotoxic T cells
  31. Totipotent Stem Cell
    The cell that is capable of developing into any cell type.
  32. Multipotent Hematopietic Stem Cell
    Only capable of producing cells for blood and found in the first 16 weeks of development
  33. Endopeptidase
    Enzymes that hydrolyse proteins (i.e. proteinases or peptidases), by cleaving peptide bonds within the protein chain, as opposed to exopeptidases, which remove amino acids from the end of the chain. The main endopeptidases in digestion are chymotrypsin, elastase, pepsin, and trypsin.
  34. Endopeptidase
    Endopeptidase targets peptide links between amino acids in the middle of the protein chain, This is explains why in the Human body proteins are subject to endopeptidase action before exopeptidase to ensure the maximum amount of "ends" (larger surface area) is possible, increasing efficiency
  35. Ectopeptidase
    exopeptidases (or ectopeptidases) target the available "ends" of the amino acid chain
  36. Peptidase
    One group of digestive enzymes that split proteins in the stomach and intestine into their constituent amino acids ( /this group is divided into ectopeptidase and endopeptidase)
  37. Zymogen
    An inactive substance that is converted into an enzyme when activated by another enzyme.
  38. Zonulae Occludentes
    Tight Junction
  39. Basolateral Cell Membrane
    The basolateral cell membrane is the fraction of the plasma membrane at the basolateral side of the cell, which faces adjacent cells and the underlying connective tissue.
  40. Basolateral Cell Membrane
    The basolateral membrane of a polarized cell is the surface of the plasma membrane that forms its basal and lateral surfaces. It faces towards the interstitium, and away from the lumen.
  41. Apical Membrane
    the layer of plasma membrane on the apical side (the side toward the lumen) of the epithelial cells in a body tube or cavity, separated from the basolateral membrane by the zonula occludens.
  42. Apical Membrane
    The apical membrane of a polarized cell is the surface of the plasma membrane that faces the lumen. This is particularly evident in epithelial and endothelial cells, but also describes other polarized cells, such as neurons.
  43. Pernicious Anaemia
    It is caused by loss of gastric parietal cells which are responsible, in part, for the secretion of Intrinsic Factor, a protein essential for subsequent absorption of vitamin B12 in the ileum.
  44. Steaorrhea
    Fatty faeces which is characterized by frothy foul-smelling fecal matter that floats and is pale in color.
  45. Tympanic Resonance
    a drumlike or hollow sound heard over a large air space of the body such as the pneumothorax
  46. Hepatomegaly
    An abnormal enlargment of the liver
  47. Ascites
    The accumulation of fluid in the peritoneal cavity, causing abdominal swelling.
  48. Splenomegaly
    Enlargement of the spleen
  49. Metaplasia
    Transformation of one tissue into another
  50. Metaplasia
    Abnormal replacement of cells of one type by cells of another
  51. Dysphagia
    Condition where swallowing is difficult or painful
  52. Polymorphism
    Individual differences in DNA. Single nucleotide polymorphism (the difference of one nucleotide in a DNA strand) is currently of interest to a number of companies.
  53. Polymorphic Marker
    A length of DNA that displays population-based variability so that its inheritance can be followed.
  54. Oogenesis
    The formation, development, and maturation of an ovum
  55. Proctocolitis
    Inflammation of the rectum and colon.
  56. Parturition
    Act of giving birth
  57. Afferent fiber
    A nerve fiber that carries impulses toward the central nervous system
  58. Afferent fiber
    Any of the nerve fibers that convey impulses o a ganglion or to a nerve center in he brain or spinal cord
  59. Pectinate Line
    a line which divides the upper 2/3s and lower 1/3 of the anal canal. Developmentally, this line represents the hindgut-proctodeum junction
  60. Keratin Fibrous
    structural proteins and is the key structural material making up the outer layer of human skin
  61. Abduction
    Lateral movement of the limbs away from he median plane of the body
  62. Adduct
    Draw toward the main axis of the body
  63. Adrenal
    Near the kidney
  64. Antero-inferior
    In front and below
  65. Anterolateral
    In front and to one side
  66. Bilateral
    Pertaining to two sides
  67. Dextrad
    To the right
  68. Dorsiduction
    Drawing backwards
  69. Extracystic
    Outside or unrelated to the bladder
  70. Extroversion
    Turning inside out
  71. Interdental
    Between adjacent teeth
  72. Intero-inferior
    Pertaining to an inward and downward position
  73. Interrenal
    Between ths kidneys
  74. Intra-articular
    Within a joint
  75. Intracardiac
    Inside the heart
  76. Intracerebral
    Within the main portion of the brain
  77. Intra-oral
    Inside the mouth
  78. Intra-osseous
    Within the bone substance
  79. Intravenous
    Within a vein
  80. Intravesical
    Within the urinary bladder
  81. Mediolateral
    Concerning the middle and side of a structure
  82. Postbrachial
    Pertaing to the posterior portion of the upper arm
  83. Postero-anterior
    Indication the movement from back to front
  84. Posterolateral
    Located behind and a the side of a part
  85. Sinistrad
    To the left
  86. Subcutaneous
    Beneath the skin
  87. Sublingual
    Concerning the area beneath the tongue
  88. Superoposterior
    Above and behind
  89. Suprarenal
    Located above the kidney
  90. Transvesical
    Across or through the bladder
  91. Hypovolaemic
    An abnormally low amount of blood in the circulatory system
  92. Haematemesis
    Vomiting blood
  93. Per rectum
    By way of the rectum
  94. Haemoglobin
    a conjugated protein, consisting of haem and the protein globin, that gives red blood cells their characteristic colour. It combines reversibly with oxygen and is thus very important in the transportation of oxygen to tissues
  95. Thrombocytopenia
    Deficiency of platelets in the blood. This causes bleeding into the tissues, bruising, and slow blood clotting after injury.
  96. Haemorrhage
    The flow of blood from a ruptured blood vessel
  97. Coagulopathy
    A disease affecting the coagulability of the blood
  98. Gastrointestinal endoscopy
    Visualization of the interior of the stomach and intestines with an illuminated, flexible optical tube
  99. Oesophageal varices
    A complex of longitudinal tortuous veins at the lower end of the esophagus, enlarged and swollen as the result of portal hypertension. These vessels are especially susceptible to hemorrhage. Conditions that can cause portal hypertension include cirrhosis and chronic hepatitis.
  100. Pathologist
    A doctor who specializes in medical diagnosis
  101. Gynaecomastia
    Is the development of abnormally large mammary glands in males resulting in breast enlargement
  102. Oedema
    Swelling from excessive accumulation of watery fluid in cells, tissues, or serous cavities.
  103. Hepatic
    Having to do with liver
  104. Histology
    he study of microscopic structure of tissues
  105. Dilation
    The condition of being abnormally enlarged or dilated, as of an organ, orifice, or tubular structure
  106. Dysphagia
    Difficulty in swallowing
  107. Dysphasia
    Difficulty in speaking
  108. Dyspnoea
    Difficult or labored breathing; shortness of breath
  109. Goitre
    Enlarged thyroid gland
  110. Biopsy
    An examination of tissue removed from a living body to discover the presence, cause, or extent of a disease
  111. Thyroidectomy
    Surgical removal of the thyroid gland
  112. Dissection
    Cutting so as to separate into pieces, especially fro anatomical study
  113. Apnoea
    A temporary interruption inability to breathe, is a period of time during which breathing stops or is markedly reduced, often occurs during sleep
  114. Tachypnoea
    Abnormally rapid breathing, >20 breaths per minute
  115. Tachycardia
    Abnormally rapid heart rate
  116. Arrhythmia
    A condition in which the heart beats with an irregular or abnormal rhythm
  117. Pulmonary angiogram
    the radiographic examination (normally x-ray) of the blood vessels of the lungs after the injection of radiopaque contrast medium into the pulmonary circulation. It is used to detect pulmonary emboli.
  118. Angiogram
    An x-ray of blood vessels which can be seen because the patient receives an injection of dye to outline the vessels on the x-ray
  119. Fluoroscopy
    Examination of body structures of body using a fluoroscope
  120. Anaemia
    The condition of having less than the normal number of red blood cells or less than the normal quantity of hemoglobin in the blood. The oxygen-carrying capacity of the blood is, therefore, decreased.
  121. Thrombus
    A stationary blood clot along the wall of a blood vessel, or intravascular coagulation of the blood in any part of the circulatory system, as in the heart, arteries, veins, or capillaries.
  122. Thromboembolism
    Formation in a blood vessel of a clot (thrombus) that breaks loose and is carried by the blood stream to plug another vessel
  123. Epigastric pain
    Abdominal pain in the middle upper section
  124. Cholecystitis
    Inflammation of the gallbladder
  125. Cholelithiasis
    The presence or formation of gallstones
  126. Cholecystectomy
    Surgical removal of the gallbladder
  127. Defecate
    Discharge feces from the body
  128. Emesis
    The action or process of vomiting
  129. Appendicectomy
    Asurgical operation of the appendix
  130. Tonsillectomy
    A surgical removal of the tonsils
  131. Arthroplasty
    Surgical reconstruction or replacement of a malformed or degenerated joint
  132. Anicteric Hepatitis
    A relatively mild viral hepatitis that is withough jaundice
  133. Orthopnoea
    Is a shortness of breath when lying down, relieved when upright and seen in congestive heart failure
  134. Lymphadenopathy
    A chronic, abnormal enlargement of the lymph nodes, usually associated with disease.
  135. Thyromegaly
    Enlargement of the thyroid
  136. Hepato-
    Liver related
  137. Haemo-negative
  138. Gastrointestinal
    The digestive organs and structures, including the stomach and intestines.
  139. Hydronephrosis
    Hydronephrosis is the swelling of the kidneys when urine flow is obstructed in any of part of the urinary tract. Swelling of the ureter, which always accompanies hydronephrosis, is called hydroureter. Hydronephrosis implies that a ureter and the renal pelvis (the connection of the ureter to the kidney) are overfilled with urine.
  140. Diagnosis
    The identification of the nature of an illness or other problem by examination of the symptoms.
  141. Nephrolithiasis
    The presence of kidney stones (calculi) in the kidney
  142. Anorectic
    Loss of appetite
  143. Anorexic
    Loss of appetite
  144. Febrile
  145. Sclerae
    Outer layer of eyeballs
  146. Calculi (pl.)
    also called stone. an abnormal stone formed in body tissues by an accumulation of mineral salts. Calculi are usually found in biliary and urinary tracts. Kinds of calculi include biliary calculus and renal calculus.
  147. Choledocholithotomy
    Incision into common bile duct for stone removal.
  148. Pulmonologist
    A physician who specializes in the diagnosis and treatment of respiratory disorders.
  149. Tussis
    a cough or pertussis.
  150. Thoracalgia
    Pain in the chest. Also called thoracodynia.
  151. Haemoptysis
    Hemoptysis is the coughing up of blood or bloody sputum from the lungs or airway. It may be either self-limiting or recurrent. Massive hemoptysis is defined as 200-600 mL of blood coughed up within a period of 24 hours or less.
  152. Bronchoscopy
    Bronchoscopy is a procedure in which a cylindrical fiberoptic scope is inserted into the airways. This scope contains a viewing device that allows the visual examination of the lower airways.
  153. Thoracography
    Radiogrpahy of the thorax with contrast agent
  154. Lesion
    any pathological or traumatic discontinuity of tissue or loss of function of a part.
  155. Biopsy
    removal and examination, usually microscopic, of tissue from the living body, performed to establish precise diagnosis.
  156. Bronchogenic
    originating in bronchi.
  157. Carcinoma
    A malignant new growth made up of epithelial cells tending to infiltrate surrounding tissues and to give rise to metastases.
  158. Apex
    tip; the pointed end of a conical part; the top of a body, organ, or part.
  159. Lethargic
    sluggishness, slowness, or dullness, an abnormal lack of energy, esp as the result of a disease
  160. Dysmenorrhoea
    Painful menstruation
  161. Ectopic
    An abnormal location or position of an organ or a body part, occurring congenitally or as the result of injury.
  162. Myospasm
    Spasmodic contraction of a muscle
  163. Leukocytosis A
    n increase in the number of white cells in the blood, esp. during an infection.
  164. Malena
    Black, tarry faeces
  165. Ischaemia
    Insufficient blood supply for the need of a part of the body, usually as a result of a disease of the blood vessels supplying that part.
  166. Colostomy
    refers to a surgical procedure where a portion of the large intestine is brought through the abdominal wall to carry stool out of the body.
  167. Ostomy
    Is a surgical procedure used to create an opening for urine and feces to be released from the body.
  168. Anastomosis
    the joining together of two blood vessels or other tubular structures to furnish a direct or indirect communication between the two structures.
  169. Peritonitis
    Peritonitis is an inflammation of the membrane which lines the inside of the abdomen and all of the internal organs.
  170. Reanastomosed
  171. Necroscopy
    examination of a body after death; autopsy.
  172. Congested
    having an excessive accumulation of a substance such as blood. The condition may be the result of increased production of the substance and/or outflow of the substance. It also can result from a decreased ability of the heart to pump, leading to lung congestion.
  173. Oedematous
    (oedema) edema: swelling from excessive accumulation of watery fluid in cells, tissues, or serous cavities.
  174. Subphrenic
    Beneath the diaphragm
  175. Histology
    The science concerned with the minute structure of tissues and organs in relation to their function.
  176. Diverticulum
    a circumscribed pouch or sac occurring normally or created by herniation of the lining mucous membrane through a defect in the muscular coat of a tubular organ.
  177. Disphragmatic
    Of the diaphragm
  178. Hepatic Congestion
    a common feature of congestive heart failure and other circulatory embarrassments of venous drainage of the liver; occurs also in anaphylaxis.
  179. Superior
    Nearer to head
  180. Inferior
    Nearer to feet
  181. Anterior
    Nearer to front
  182. Posterior
    Nearer to back
  183. Medial
    Nearer to median plane
  184. Lateral
    Farther from median plane
  185. Proximal
    Nearer to trunk or point of origin
  186. Distal
    Farther from trunk or point of origin
  187. Superficial
    Nearer to on outer surface
  188. Deep
    Farther from surface
  189. Dorsum
    Dorsal surface of hand or foot
  190. Palm
    Palmar surface of hand
  191. Sole
    Plantar surface of foot
  192. Inferomedial
    Means nearer to the feet and closer to the median plane
  193. Superolateral
    Means nearer to the head and farther from the median plane
  194. Osteocyte
    a bone cell; a mature osteoblast that has become embedded in the bone matrix. It occupies a small cavity and sends out protoplasmic projections that anastomose with those of other osteocytes to form a system of minute canals within the bone matrix
  195. Osteoblast
    A cell that makes bone. It does so by producing a matrix that then becomes mineralized
  196. Cholinergic
    Relating or denoting nerve cells in whic acetylcholine acts as a neurotransmitter
  197. Chronotropic
    Affecting time or rate, or rate of rhythmic movements
  198. Inotropic
    Affecting the force of muscular contractions
  199. Prokaryotes
    Any of the group of organisms primarily characterized by the lack of true nucleus and other membrane-bound cell compartments: such as mitochondria and chloroplasts, and by the possession of a single loop of stable chromosomal DNA in the nucleiod region and cytoplasmic structures, such as plasma membrane, vacuoles, primitive cytoskeleton, and ribosomes.
  200. Eukaryote
    Any of the single-celled or multicellular organisms whose cell contains a distinct, membrane-bound nucleus.
  201. Agenesis
    Imperfect/Lack of development of an organ or body part.
  202. Aplasia
    Failure to develop an organ or a tissue
  203. Dysgenesis
    Defective or abnormal development of an organ, especially of the gonads.
  204. Hypoplasia
    Underdevelopment of an organ because of a decrease in the number of cells
  205. Subluxation
    Partial dislocation of a joint
  206. Luxation
    Total dislocation of a joint
  207. Hemiarthroplasty
    A surgical procedure for repair of an injured or diseased hip joint involving replacing the head of femur with a prosthesis without reconstruction of the acetabulum.
  208. Diaphoresis
    Excessive sweating, copious and medically induced
  209. Papilloedema
    A non-inflammatory oedema of the optic nerve head produced by raised intracranial pressure
  210. Exudate
    A fluid that has exuded out of a tissue or its capillaries due to injury or inflammation.
  211. Fibrinous
    Pertaining to or of the nature of fibrin.
  212. Purulent
    Containing pus
  213. Leukocyte
    A white blood cell circulating in the blood.
  214. Pseudopodia
    A temporary protusions of the surface o the ameboid cell for movement and feeding
  215. Intrinsic pathway
    One of the 3 pathways in the coagulation cascade.
  216. Extrinsic pathway
    One of the 3 pathways in the coagulation cascade.
  217. Macule
    Small Circumscribed discolouration of skin i.e. Freckle
  218. Papule
    Palpable lesion raised above the surrounding surface of the skin
  219. Vesicle (Blister)
    Lesion consisting of liquid within the epidermis or dermis
  220. Bulla
    Larger variety of Vesicle
  221. Pustule
    Purulent vesicle
  222. Erythema
    Reddening of the skin
  223. Fluctuant
    Moveable & Compressable
  224. Gubernaculum
    A guiding structure; fetal ligament attached from epididymis/testis and scrotum, present during descent of the testis, then atrophies
  225. Psychocomatic
    Influence of the mind on the body
  226. Infection
    The establishment of a microorganism within a host
  227. Pathogen
    Any microorganisms that has the capacitity to cause disease
  228. Virulence
    Quantitive measure of pathogenicity or liklihood of causing disease
  229. Virulence factors
    The properties that enable a microorgsanism to establish itself and replicate on or within a specific host species, and that enhance the microbe's potential to cause disease.
  230. Opportunistic pathogens
    Require a defect in the immune defence to cause disease
  231. Intrauterine infection
    An infection acquired by the fetus whilst in the mother's womb
  232. Enterovirus
    RNA virus that enters body and thrives in GI tract and then attacks the nervous system