Dugaev. Digging . Measured how much they ad dug. Had to answer 4 questions. First name, last name, crime and sentence. Was killed for not working hard enough.
Varlam Shalamov "Kolyma Tales" 1966
Kolyma was a soviet work camp. Shalamov spent 20 years in it He did not even know why. His tales were smuggled out of the camp. Tells of his experience in the camp.
Comrades. Lenin stressed the role of the people. Got away from that. Stalin did not persuade people but forced them to do things. "Enemy of the people" Terror substituted ideological struggle. Mass arrests and deportations and arrest of people that were not disloyal but inconvenient for Stalin. Stalin's fault they weren't ready for the Germans.
Nikita Khrushchev "On the Cult of Personality and its Consequences" 1956.
After Stalin's death Khrushchev emerged as the leader. He gave a secret speech denouncing the authoritarianism because it got away from Lenin's goal. Though he remained committed to a single party rule, planned economy, and censorship there was a noticeable thaw during his rule
Men are the positive women are the negative. Difference between men and women. Woman is defined relative to man. She is sex. Other describes women while the One describes men. Women are subordinate to men. Compares situation of women to situation of Blacks. Both emancipating themselves from their current roles
Simone De Beauvoir "The Second Sex" 1949
FranceAt the End of WWII traditional models of masculinity and femininity were resurrected. Popularization of existentialism which emphasizes the existence of the individual person as a free and responsible agent determining their own development through acts of the will. This fueled the growing resistance to "objectification." Beauvoir wants women to reject socially imposed models of appropriate feminine identity and become authentic individuals
Violence will be the end of colonialism. Algeria. Violence binds the people together as a whole Violence makes the nation fearless.
Frantz Fanon "The Wretched of the Eath" 1961
Algeria Stressed the importance of violence in Algeria's quest for independence.
Turkish workers. Jobs with the most risks. Bribes people to get jobs. Thyssen. Remmert. Turks treated poorly Foreigners stick together. Terrible conditions difficult to breathe. Working in -17 degree weather. Racist graffiti and racism in general
Gunter Wallraff "Lowest of the Low" 1988
Germany Germany's most famous journalist in the 1970s He disguised himself as a Turkish laborer.Lived life as Ali for 2 years.
Need for change in the Soviet Union. Politburo. CPSU Central committee and the leadership of the SU failed. Economic system limited its ability to adapt and develop. Distribution according to work was violated Restructuring means a turn to science and development of the social sphere. Some elements of free market capitalism. Further democratization. Wanted advanced economy broadened democracy and morals and ethics
Mikhail Gorbachev "On restructuring the Party's Personnel Policy" 1986
Gorbachev became the leader after Brezhnev . he initiated an extensive reform campaign to revitalize the Soviet Economy through democracy and increasing openness "Glasnost" and restructuring "Perestroika"