A+ 220-702 Sections 1 - 3

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A+ 220-702 Sections 1 - 3
2012-07-04 01:17:09
220 702 CompTIA

CompTIA 220-702 A+ Sections 1 - 3
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  1. Definition of: Service
    A service is a program that processes requests from other applications or users.
  2. Reliability Monitor
    • Reliability Monitor maintains historical data that describe the operating system's stability.
    • Overall system stability is given a stability index that ranges from 1 to 10 (10 being the most stable).
  3. System Information (Msinfo32)
    Use Msinfo32 to view hardware and configuration information for your computer.
  4. Members of the Power Users group CAN:
    • Modify and Delete accounts they Create.
    • Create local groups and manage uses of those groups
    • Manage Power Users, Users, and Guests groups.
    • Change the system date and time.
    • Install applications.
  5. Members of the Power Users group CANNOT:
    • Manage Administrators or Backup Operators groups
    • Take ownership of files
    • Back up or restore files
    • Load or unload device drivers
    • Manage security and auditing logs
  6. To turn off and customize UAC:
    • Vista  - Control Panel --> User Accounts -->Select Turn User Account Control on or off
    • 7 - you can also go to System and Security in the Control Panel, then use the link under the Action Center.
  7. Power Supply
    Provide 3.3, 5, and 12 volts (Each separate voltage output circuit is referred to as a rail)
  8. 20-pin connector is the main motherboard connector and supplies 3.3, 5, and 12 volts to the motherboard. On older motherboards, the CPU is powered through a 5 volt wire in this connector.
  9. 24-pin motherboard connector replaces the 20-pin connector in older motherboards. The additional 4 pins supply an extra wire for 3.3, 5, and 12 volts.
  10. Starting with the Pentium IV processor (P4), CPUs required more power than could be provided through the main motherboard connector. In addition, processors are powered using 12 volts instead of 5 volts. The 4-pin 12 volt connector supplies 2 additional wires of 12 volt power.

    Note: This 4-pin connector is not the same as the 4-pin connector used in conjunction with the 20-pin motherboard power connector.
  11. Molex connector is used by IDE hard drives, optical drives, and other accessory devices. The connector provides both 5 volts (red wire) and 12 volts (yellow wire).
  12. SATA power cable has 15 pins and provides 3.3, 5, and 12 volts.
  13. The 4-pin mini-Molex connector provides both 5 and 12 volts and is used by floppy drives.
    • SDRAM
    • 168 pins
    • RDRAM
    • 184 pins
    • DDR
    • 184 pins
    • DDR-2
    • 240 pins
    • DDR-3
    • 240 pins
    • 144-pin SODIMM
    • Used by SDRAM, DDR, and DDR-2 RAM
    • 200-pin SODIMM
    • Used by DDR-2 and DDR-3 RAM
  14. SPD (Serial Presence Detect)
    A chip on the RAM module that identifies its frequency to the system. Used by the BIOS to set the frequency automatically.
  15. PCI
    • Peripheral Component Interconnect
    • PCI supports a 32 or 64bit I/O bus providing compatibility with both 486 and Pentium machines.
    • PCI slots are typically white.
  16. Mini-PCI
    • 100 or 124 pins 
    • A typical use for a mini-PCI slot is to add internal cards (such as wireless cards) to laptops.
  17. PCIe
    • Peripheral Component Interconnect Express
    • 2.5 Gbps (250MBps) x1 x2, x4, x8, x16, x32
    • Serial full-duplex
  18. AGP
    • Accelerated Graphics Port
    • AGP is similar to PCI, but designed specifically for graphics support.
    • Motherboards that provide AGP support have a single AGP slot.
  19. AMR
    • Audio Model Riser
    • Riser that attaches daughter cards, typically provide sound or modem functions.
  20. CNR
    • Communications Network Riser
    • Riser slot that allows for inserting networking, wireless communication, sound, or modem functions.
  21. Television signals
    • NTSC, PAL, and SECAM are analog TV signal standards. NTSC was used in North America but is being phased out.
    • ATSC signals are digital TV signals.
  22. HDCP
    High-bandwidth Digital Content Protection: is a form of digital copy protection developed by Intel Corporation to prevent copying of digital audio and video content as it travels across connections.
  23. PCI Express (power for newer cards)
    Many newer cards require a special 6-pin or 8-pin power connector
  24. SLI
    • Scalable Link Interface
    • NVIDIA
    • half of the work load is sent to the slave card through a connector called the SLI Bridge (cable)
    • As an example, the master card works on the top half of the scene while the slave card works on the bottom half. When the slave card is done, it sends its output to the master card, which combines the two images to form one and then outputs the final render to the monitor.
  25. CrossFire
    • ATI
    • The Master card shipped with a proprietary DVI Y-dongle, which plugged into the primary DVI ports on both cards, and into the monitor cable. This dongle serves as the main link between both cards,

  26. D-sub connector, sometimes called a VGA connector, uses a DB-15 connector with three rows of pins.
  27. DVI-A (digital video-analog) connection on a video card provides analog output.

    • DVI-D (digital video-digital) connection on a video card provides digital output.
    • Single link 3 rows of 6 pins with one additional larger horizontal pin. 60 Hz up to 1920x1080
    • Dual link 3 rows of 8 pins plus the horizontal pin. 60 Hz up to 2048x1536

  28. DVI-I (digital video-integrated) connection on a video card provides both analog and digital output. The DVI-I connection has all of the pins present in both the DVI-A and DVI-D connections.
    • DMS-59 connector is used to allow multiple video ports from a single connection. 
    • Sends out two separate DVI-I signals through the single connector.
    • Composite video
    • Y channel is for brightness or luminance
    • U and V channels provide color information

    • S-video (separate-video, Y/C, or S-VHS)
    • 4-pin mini-din
    • HDTV connector
    • 7-pin mini-din
  29. High-Definition Multimedia Interface (HDMI) is a digital video and audio connector used for high-definition digital audio and 
    • DisplayPort
    • Can send audio signals over the same cable
    • DisplayPort uses lower voltage than DVI and HDMI
    • Internal video interface used by laptop 
    • Royalty free
  30. Cable TV (F-type)
  31. VGA
    640 x 480
  32. SVGA
    800 x 600
  33. XGA
    1024 x 768
  34. XGA+
  35. SXGA
    1280x1024  (5:4 aspect ratio)
  36. SXGA+
  37. WSXGA+
    1680 x 1050
  38. UXGA
    1600 x 1200
  39. WUXGA
    1920 x 1200
  40. Resolutions used by HDTV are:
    • 1280 x 720 - 720p or 720i
    • 1920 x 1080 - 1080p or 1080i
  41. Color depth
    • 8-bit (256 possible colors)
    • 16-bit, also called high color (65,536 possible colors)
    • 24-bit, also called true color (16.7 million possible colors)
    • 32-bit, also called true color (16.7 million possible colors and alpha channel)
    • Mini TRS
    • 3.5mm plugs for analog audio input and output
    • Pink = Mic In (Mic Level)
    • Light blue = Line In (Line Level)
    • Lime green = Line Out, front speakers or headphones
    • Black = Line Out, rear speakers
    • Orange = Line Out, center and surround speakers
  42. Toslink:  used with digital optical input or output for S/PDIF audio.
    • RCA
    • Usually used for coaxial digital input or output for S/PDIF audio.

  43. DB-15 connector on a sound card is used to connect to MIDI devices or game joysticks.
  44. PS/2
    6-pin mini-din
  45. Floppy Drives
    • Ribbon cables have 34 pins
    • Mini-molex connector.
    • IRQ 6 and DMA channel 2
  46. SATA I
    1.5 Gbps (150 MBps) data transfer
  47. SATA II or SATA-IO
    • 3 Gbps (300 MBps)
    • Xbox360 hard disk interface (called xSATA).
    • Hot plug support
    • Improved connectors to reduce ESD
    • Native Command Queuing (NCQ)
    • Port multiplier support
  48. SATA 6 Gbps
    • 6 Gbps (600MBps)
    • This standard mainly addresses solid state drives with a SATA (hard drives are not capable of sending data at this rate).
    • The standard includes new connectors for solid state devices and thin optical drives.
  49. eSATA
    • eSATA devices use a special SATA data cable with a locking clip to prevent the cable from being accidently disconnected.
    • eSATA devices require an external power connector or power source.
  50. SATA modes
    • IDE mode Devices appear to the BIOS and the operating system as IDE devices. IDE mode is the default mode for most computers.
    • AHCI Devices operate in full SATA mode. All SATA features are available such as hot swapping and native command queuing. 
    • RAID The onboard RAID controller is used to control access to drives. RAID mode typically includes the features available in AHCI mode.