Eukaryotic Cell

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  1. The 2 sections of a cells and how to access them
    1. Cytosol: must cross plasma membrane 

    2. ER lumen: can be endocytosed and supercede membrane transport 
  2. Golgi roles
    1. Package proteins and export them to other parts of the cell or via exocytosis 

    2. Lysosomes

    3. Polysaccharide synthesis ocassionally & glycosylation of proteins to protect from degradation or for modification purposes
  3. What separates the two compartments of a cell from one another?
    The ER membrane
  4. Smooth ER roles
    • 1. Lipid synthesis for membrane 
    • 2. Detox
    • 3. Oxidizing
    • 4. Storage of Ca2+ in muscles  
  5. Image Upload 1
    Only eukaryotes have nuclei! 

    The nucleolus disappears during prophase ... it is NOT membrane-bound 
  6. Microtubules
    1. Composed of glubular protein tubulin (9+2)

    2. Found in eukaryotic flagella, cilia, mitotic spindle (composition of centrioles), radiate out from centrioles
  7. Where in the human body is cilia found?
    • 1. Fallopian tubes 
    • 2. Respiratory tract  
  8. Microfilaments
    a. Composed of actin 

    b. Involved in phagocytosis and cytokinesis, cleavage, contractility
  9. Cellular junctions
    1. Tight : water-tight (on apical side of cell)

    2. Gap: tunnel

    3. Desmosomes: stressed, strongest
  10. Mitochondrial DNA is passed...?
  11. Mitochondria
    1. Christae are the folds 

    2. Have own ribosomes

    3. Have own DNA that replicates independently of cell
  12. Bacterial antibiotics meant to block translation will affect...?
    Mitochondria but not cellular DNA because mitochondrial ribosomes are similar to bacterial ribosomes 
  13. Glycosaminoglycans
    Found in the extracellular matrix 
  14. Bone, Blood, Lymph, cartilage
    Types of connective tissue
  15. What is the basal lamina?
    AKA the basement membrane: separates epithelial cells from support tissue/surrounding cells and often acts as a filtration device

    Image Upload 2
  16. Cells in the same tissue...?
    Arise from the same embryonic germ layer
  17. Where specifically is rRNA transcribed?
    The nucleolus
  18. DNA sense in relation to RNA
    DNA +/sense strand is removed to allow for aomplimentary base pairing between growing mRNA and DNA -/antisense strand 

    • DNA sense strand is akin to mRNA +
    • but DNA antisense is the source of the protein code
  19. Cell walls protect (bacteria) against...
    Differences in osmotic pressure 
  20. What's the difference between old and newly synthesized DNA?
    Old DNA has methylations - This is how replication repairs occur...the repair enzymes know which DNA strand to match and which one to fix
  21. Nucleotide 
    Pentose sugar + N base + phosphate 
  22. Nucleoside 
    N base + sugar 
  23. What does a clone plasmid need to have?
    • 1. Origin of replication 
    • 2. Restriction site so gene of interest can be inserted
    • 3. Antibiotic resistance gene
Card Set
Eukaryotic Cell
MCAT Biology
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