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The 2 sections of a cells and how to access them
1. Cytosol: must cross plasma membrane
2. ER lumen: can be endocytosed and supercede membrane transport
1. Package proteins and export them to other parts of the cell or via exocytosis
3. Polysaccharide synthesis ocassionally & glycosylation of proteins to protect from degradation or for modification purposes
What separates the two compartments of a cell from one another?
The ER membrane
Smooth ER roles
- 1. Lipid synthesis for membrane
- 2. Detox
- 3. Oxidizing
- 4. Storage of Ca2+ in muscles
Only eukaryotes have nuclei!
The nucleolus disappears during prophase ... it is NOT membrane-bound
1. Composed of glubular protein tubulin (9+2)
2. Found in eukaryotic flagella, cilia, mitotic spindle (composition of centrioles), radiate out from centrioles
Where in the human body is cilia found?
- 1. Fallopian tubes
- 2. Respiratory tract
a. Composed of actin
b. Involved in phagocytosis and cytokinesis, cleavage, contractility
1. Tight : water-tight (on apical side of cell)
2. Gap: tunnel
3. Desmosomes: stressed, strongest
Mitochondrial DNA is passed...?
1. Christae are the folds
2. Have own ribosomes
3. Have own DNA that replicates independently of cell
Bacterial antibiotics meant to block translation will affect...?
Mitochondria but not cellular DNA because mitochondrial ribosomes are similar to bacterial ribosomes
Found in the extracellular matrix
Bone, Blood, Lymph, cartilage
Types of connective tissue
What is the basal lamina?
AKA the basement membrane: separates epithelial cells from support tissue/surrounding cells and often acts as a filtration device
Cells in the same tissue...?
Arise from the same embryonic germ layer
Where specifically is rRNA transcribed?
DNA sense in relation to RNA
DNA +/sense strand is removed to allow for aomplimentary base pairing between growing mRNA and DNA -/antisense strand
- DNA sense strand is akin to mRNA +
- but DNA antisense is the source of the protein code
Cell walls protect (bacteria) against...
Differences in osmotic pressure
What's the difference between old and newly synthesized DNA?
Old DNA has methylations - This is how replication repairs occur...the repair enzymes know which DNA strand to match and which one to fix
Pentose sugar + N base + phosphate
N base + sugar
What does a clone plasmid need to have?
- 1. Origin of replication
- 2. Restriction site so gene of interest can be inserted
- 3. Antibiotic resistance gene