Art History Slide Essay Ch 3
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- Step Pyramid of Djoser
- Architect : Imhotep
- Originally began as a one story mastaba. Although the step pyramid resembles the ziggurats, they differ in meaning and purpose. Step pyramids signify a stairway to the sun god Ra, and also protects a tomb that lies beneath.Djoser’s Step pyramid was a major advancement in funerary architecture. The original structure was built from local stone and covered in Tura limestone, a second layer of
- limestone was added to all four sides slightly lower than the original mastaba resulting in a small step.
- The statue of Khafre, or Khaf-Ra meaning appearing like god Ra, was created during fourth Dynasty of Egypt in about 2520 —2494 BCE in Gizeh (or Giza). This is a seated statue of Khafre, but this pharaoh’s statues appear all over pharaoh’s valley temple near Great Sphinx, which as many scholars believe was also created in the image of Khafre. Seated Khafre statue was made from a very rare and expensive stone of that region, Diorite. It is about 1 meter 67 centimeters tall and is currently located in Museum of Cairo. This statue portrays the image of perfection and immortality. Khafre sits so rigidly on his stone throne that it makes for an effect of “immortal stillness” which was meant as a symbol for afterlife (Kleiner 37). As seen on the side photograph of the statue on the head of the pharaoh is falcon god Horus who is believed to protect the pharaoh with his wings. Khafre wears a names headdress and a false beard indicating his royalty. Khafre’s statue, like statue of many other pharaohs,indicates perfection and youth of the pharaoh without regard to his true age and physical health.
- Khafre pyramid
- Great Sphinx
- Best preserved funerary complex. Most famous for the Great Sphinx, which is a portrait of the king Khafre combined with the bod of a lion, merging notions of human intelligence with animal strength. It is the second-largest of the ancient Egyptian Pyramids of Giza and the tomb of the fourth-dynasty pharaoh Khafre. The bottom course of casing stones was made out of pink granite but the remainder of the pyramid was cased in Tura Limestone. Khafre’s sarcophagus was carved out of a solid block of granite and sunk partially in the floor. Another pit in the floor likely contained the canopic chest.
- Akhenaten and His Family
- sunken relief sculpture of Akhenaten and his Queen Nefertiti and their nude children.
- Rather than composed serenity, the artist conveys the fidgety behaviour of children and the loving involvement of the parents.
- Judgement of Hunefer Before Osiris
- Painted papyrus
- from a Book of the Dead
- Shows 3 successive stages in his induction into the afterlife. Anubis, god of embalming and cemeteries and Osiris, god of the underworld.
- Books of the Dead: Family members commissioned papyrus scrolls containing magical spells which were placed among the mummy's wrappings.
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