Musculoskeletal System

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Author:
Chum
ID:
159935
Filename:
Musculoskeletal System
Updated:
2012-06-24 19:58:28
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Musculoskeletal System
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Description:
Chapter 2 Musculoskeletal System
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  1. Bone types
    Long, Tubular, Short, Sesamoid, Cuboidal, Flat & Irregular
  2. Long
    Bones longer then they are wide and found in limbs(eg femur and humerus) these bones are names for their elongated shape, not their size.
  3. Tubular
    Also referred to as long bones
  4. Short
    Roughly cube shaped bones such as carpal bones of the wrist and tarsal bones of the ankle
  5. Sesamoid
    ("Shaped like a sesame sead") a short bone formed within tendons; cartilaginous in early life and osseous (bony) in the adult. the patella is the largest sesamoid bone in the body.
  6. Cubidal
    also referred to as short bones
  7. Flat
     Consist of a layer of spongy bone between two thin layers of compact bone; cross-section is flat, not round. Flat bones have marrow, but lack a bone marrow cavity. Skull and ribs are examples
  8. Irregular
    bones in the body not fitting into the above categories mentioned; several are found in the face, such as zygoma. Vertebrae are also considered irregular bones.
  9. Human skeleton is divieded into two parts
    The axial and appendicular skeleton
  10. Axial skeleton consist of
    Skull, Hyoid and cervical spine, (Neck), Ribs, Sternum, Vertebrae & Sacrum
  11. Appendicular Skeleton
    Sholder girdle, Pelvic girdle & Extremities
  12. Common Bone Fractures
    Closed, Compound, Comminuted, Transverse, Greenstick, Spiral, Colles', Commpression & Epiphyseal.
  13. Closed Fracture
    Does not involve a break in the skin
  14. Compound Fracture
    Projects through the skin with a possibility of infection
  15. Comminuted Fracture
    Shatter affected part into bony fragments
  16. Transverse Fracture
    Breaks shaft of bone across the longitudinal axis
  17. Greenstick Fracture
    Only one side of the shaft is broken, and the other is bent; common in children.
  18. Spiral Fracture
    Spread along length of bone and produced by twisting stress.
  19. Colles' Fracture
    Occurs in wrist and affects the distal radius bone.
  20. Compression Fracture
    Vertebrae collapse due to trauma, tumor, or osteoporosis
  21. Epiphyseal Fracture
    Occurs when matrix is calcifying and chondrocytes are dying; usually seen in children
  22. Muscle types
    Skeletal, Cardiac & Smooth.
  23. Skeletal Muscle
    Also called striated muscle, it is attached to the skeleton by tendons; contraction of skeletal muscle is under voluntary control.
  24. Cardiac Muscle
    Also called heart muscle, it contains interlocking involuntary straited muscle as well as smooth muscle, wich allow the electrical impulses to pass quickly across the muscle fibers.
  25. Smooth muscle
    Found in the walls of all the hollow organs of the body (except the heart). Its contractions reduces the size of these structures; movement generally is considered involuntary (not under voluntary control)

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