Com 321

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  1. ethnocentrism
    the tendency to think one’s own culture is superior to other cultures
  2. demographics
    the characteristics of a population (race, ethnicity, age, sex, income)
  3. heterogeneous
    difference(s) in a group, culture, or population
  4. homogeneous
    similarity in a group, culture, or population
  5. anglocentrism
    using Anglo or white standards as the criteria for interpretations and judgement of behaviors and attitudes
  6. nativistic
    extremely patriotic to the point of being anti-immigrant
  7. enclaves
    territories that are surrounded by another country’s territory or minority groups living in a majority groups territory
  8. multinational corporations
    companies that that have operations in two or more nations
  9. global village
    a world in which communication technology unites people in remote parts of the world
  10. diaspora
    group of people outside of their home culture that flock together
  11. Identity management
    the way individuals make sense of their multiple images concerning the sense of self in different social contexts
  12. Identity tourism
    a concept that refers to people taking on the identities of other races, genders, classes, or sexual orientations for recreational purposes
  13. multiphrenia
    the splitting of the individual psychologically into multiple selves
  14. colonialism
    the study of history to see how communication affects things
  15. dialogical approach
    focuses on the importance of dialogue in developing and maintaining relationships between individuals and communities
  16. proxemics
    how people use personal space to communicate
  17. Distant Zones
    the space within which people interact
  18. 4 types of Distant Zones
    • 1) intimate
    • 2) personal
    • 3) social
    • 4) public
  19. Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis
    the assumption that language shapes our view of social reality.
  20. Intercultural competence
    the ability to behave effectively and appropriately in interacting across cultures
  21. Social Science Approach/Functionalist Approach
    • the goal is to predict human behavior
    • uses quantatative methods
    • researchers assume culture is a variable that can be measured 
  22. Face Negotiation Theory
    how conflict can threaten one’s face
  23. Conversational Constraints Theory
    attempts to explain how and why people make particular conversational choices
  24. Communication Accommodation Theory
    • attempts to identify how and when individuals accommodate their speech and nonverbal behaviors to others during an interaction
    • example: when speaking with international students, we may speak slower and more clearly, use less jargon, and mirror their communication
  25. Diffusion of Innovations Theory
    communication and relationships determine how new ideas are adopted (or not) by individuals and groups
  26. The Interpretive Approach
    • attempts to answer why things are acceptable or not in different cultures
    • uses qualitative methods
    • example: rhetorical approach 
  27. quantatative methods
    gathering data by administering questionnaires
  28. qualitative methods
    capture people’s meanings in everyday behavior, use participant observation and field studies
  29. Rhetorical Approach
    texts or public speeches are examined in the contexts in which they occur
  30. Critical Approach
    focuses on power and how it functions in cultural situations
  31. Hybrid Identities
    form with aspects from more than one culture, mostly from the media
  32. Dialectical Approach
    emphasizes the relational aspect of IC study
  33. 6 Dialectics of IC
    • Cultural-Individual Dialectic
    • Personal-Contextual Dialectic
    •  Differences-Similarities Dialectic
    • Static-Dynamic Dialectic
    • History/Past-Present/Future Dialectic
    • Privilege-Disadvantage Dialectic 
  34. Cultural-Individual Dialectic
    IC is both cultural and individual, or idiosyncratic
  35. Personal-Contextual Dialectic
    focuses simultaneously on the person and the context
  36. Differences-Similarities Dialectic
    people are simultaneously similar to and different from each other
  37. Static-Dynamic Dialectic
    IC is both static and dynamic at once
  38. History/Past-Present/Future Dialectic
    focuses on the past and present
  39. Privilege-Disadvantage Dialectic
    people may be simultaneously privileged and disadvantaged, or privileged in some contexts but disadvantaged in others
  40. framework for for communication, SPEAKING
    • S cene : setting of communication
    • P articipants : people involved
    • E nd : goal of the participants
    • A ct Sequence : order of phrases during conversation
    • K ey : tone of the conversation
    • I nstrumentality : channel of communication
    • N orm : rules accepted by society
    • G enre : type or category of talk
  41. Kluckhohn and Strodtbeck Value Orientations
    emphasizes the centrality of cultural values in understanding cultural groups
  42. The Nature of Human Nature
    a belief in the fundamental goodness of human nature
  43. Relationship Between Humans and Nature
    how we change nature in order to better suit our needs
  44. Hofstede Value Orientations
    examines value differences among national societies
  45. power distance
    how people expect and accept the unequal distribution of power
  46. Uncertainty Avoidance
    the degree to which people who feel threatened by ambiguous situations respond by avoiding them
  47. Political Histories
    histories that focus on political events
  48. Intellectual Histories
    written histories that focus on the development of ideas
  49. Social Histories
    histories that document everyday life experiences of various groups in the past
  50. Absent Histories
    the result of concealing the past
  51. Family Histories
    • histories of families
    • often not written down, but passed along orally from generation to generation
  52. National Histories
    typically learned in the school system
  53. 7 Nonmainstream Histories
    • Racial and Ethnic Histories
    • Gender Histories
    • Sexual Orientation Histories
    • Diasporic Histories
    • Colonial Histories
    • Socioeconomic Class Histories
    • Religious Histories
  54. 4 Elements of Personal Histories that influence interaction
    • childhood experiences
    • historical myths
    • the language we speak
    • recent, vivid events 
  55. The Contact Hypothesis
    the notion that better communication between groups is facilitated by putting people together in the same place and allowing them to interact
  56. Identity
    • the concept of who we are
    • created by self and by relation to group membership 
  57. Identity Negotiaion Theory
    process of communicating one’s own desired identities while resisting others’ identities
  58. avowal
    process by which an individual portrays themself
  59. ascription
    the process by which others attribute identities to an individual
  60. interpellation/hailing
    • the communication process by which one is pulled into the social forces that place people into a specific identity
    • example: “your male, then be a man”
  61. Minority Identity Development
    • Stage 1: Unexamined Identity - members lack interest to learn about identity issues
    • Stage 2: Conformity - internalization of values and norms of the dominant group, some have negative attitudes towards themselves and their group
    • Stage 3: Resistance and Separatism - period of dissonance, or a growing awareness that not all dominant group values are beneficial to minorities. Often ends with endorsing the values and attitude attributed to the minority
    • Stage 4: Integration - an achieved identity
  62. Majority Identity Development
    • Stage 1: Unexamined Identity - members lack interest to learn about identity issues
    • Stage 2: Acceptance - internalization, conscious or unconscious, of a racist (or biased) ideology
    • Stage 3: Resistance - a move from blaming minorities for their condition to blaming their own dominant group as a source of problems, can create a need to distance oneself from the group
    • Stage 4: Redefinition - people refocus their energy toward redefining their identity
    • Stage 5: Integration - internalize their increased consciousness and integrate their majority identities into all other facets of their identity
  63. Racial Identity
    • identifying with a particular racial group
    • constructed by others 
  64. Ethnic Identity
    • a set of ideas about one’s own ethnic group membership
    • a sense of belonging to a particular group
    • constructed by self and others 
  65. Normative Race Privilege
    generally, majority members are privileged
  66. Global Nomads
    people who grow up in many different cultural contexts because their parents relocated
  67. Culture Brokers
    individuals who act as bridges between cultures, facilitating cross-cultural interaction and conflict
  68. Communication Game Plan for Biracial People
    • Step 1: Awareness - children recognize messages about identity
    • Step 2: Coping - children learn to respond effectively to the racialized messages
    • Step 3: Emergence - children select and create their own labels for themselves 
  69. 4 perspectives of understanding identity
    • personal layer: focuses on one’s self-cognition, spiritual self, self-concept, and sense of well being
    • enactment layer: how messages express identity
    • relational layer: how one’s identity emerges through one’s relationships with others and how relationships themselves possess their own identities
    • communal layer: group or community that has a shared identity
  70. Identity Freezing
    • when one interactant imposes an objective and public identity on the other
    • example: "you're asian, you must be good with numbers"
  71. sojourners
    people who move into new cultural contexts for a limited period of time and for a specific purpose, such as for study or business
  72. immigrants
    people who come to a new country, region, or environment to settle more or less permanently
  73. long-term refugees
    people who are forced to relocate permanently because of war, famine, and oppression
  74. short-term refugees
    people who are forced for a short time to move from their region or country
  75. assimilation
    cultural adaptation when an individual gives up their own culture and adopts the mainstream cultural identity
  76. separation
    cultural adaptation when an individual retains their original culture and avoids mainstream culture, can lead to segregation
  77. segregation
    the policy or practice of compelling groups to live apart from each other
  78. integration
    cultural adaptation when an individual maintains both their original culture and the mainstream culture
  79. marginalization
    cultural adaptation when an individual expresses little interest in maintaining cultural ties with either the dominant or migrant culture
  80. cultural adaptation
    process in which individuals learn the rules and customs of new cultural contexts (finally feeling comfortable in a new environment)
  81. Social Science approach to Cultural Adaptation
    focuses on the individual in the adaptation process, individual characteristics and background of the migrant, and the individual outcomes of adaptation
  82. 3 models of the Social Science approach to Cultural Adaptation
    • Anxiety and Uncertainty Management (AUM) Model
    • The Transition Model
    • The Integrative Model
  83. psychological health
    the state of being emotionally comfortable in a cultural context
  84. Interpretive approach to Cultural Adaptation
    • goal is to understand why people act the way they do
    • uses qualitative methods 
  85. 3 models of the Interpretive approach to Cultural Adaptation
    • U-Curve Model
    • W-Curve Model
    • Phenomenological Model 
  86. Critical approach to Cultural Adaptation 
    • focuses on the fact that adaptation depends on the context
    • some contexts are easier to adapt than others 
  87. Open-Systems approach
    • Assumption 1: Humans have an inherent drive to adapt and grow
    • Assumption 2: Adaptation to one’s social environment occurs through communication
    • Assumption 3: Adaptation is a complex and dynamic process
  88. Deculturation
    unlearning of at least some of the old cultural habits 
  89. Acculturation
    learning and acquiring the elements of the host culture
  90. openness
    minimizes resistance and maximizes willingness
  91. semantics
    the study of meaning - how individual words communicate the meanings we intend
  92. syntactics
    the study of structure, or grammer - the rules for combining words into meaningful sentences
  93. phonetics
    the study of how meaning is constructed in relation to receivers, how language is actually used in particular contexts in language communities
  94. pragmatics
    the study of the sound system of language - how words are pronounced, which sounds are specific for a certain language and which sounds are universal - all about intentions (sarcasm, politeness, etc.)
  95. The Nominalist Position
    the view that perception isn’t shaped by the particular language one speaks
  96. The Relativist Position
    the view that the particular language individuals speak, especially the structure of the language, shapes their perception of reality and cultural patterns (Sapir-Whorf)
  97. The Qualified Relativist Position
    the view that language shapes our orientation to the world, but is not a “prison”
  98. metamessage
    meaning of a message that tells others how they should respond to the content of our communication based on our relationship to them
  99. high-context communication
    style of communication in which much of the information is contained in the contexts and nonverbal cues rather than expressed explicitly in words
  100. low-context communication
    style of communication in which much of the information is conveyed in words rather than nonverbal cues and contexts
  101. elaborate style
    use of rich, expressive language in everyday talk
  102. understated style
    values succinct, simple assertions, and silence
  103. Co-Cultural Groups
    ex: African Americans, Asian Americans
  104. interlanguage
    ex. 2 mexicans speaking english...creates a kind of 3rd language (spanglish)
  105. lingua franca
    ex. asian and mexican speaking english
  106. code switching
    a technical term in communication that refers to the phenomenon of changing languages, dialects, or even accents
  107. convergence
    adapting communicative behavior to closer match the other individual in the conversation
  108. divergence
    the way in which speakers accentuate speech and nonverbal differences between themselves and others
  109. maintenance
    continue in your original speech style despite convergence or divergence of your interlocutor
  110. asymmetrical accommodation
    when one partner converges or diverges to a greater or lesser extent, or fail to react, or behave in a contrasting manner
  111. NNSMNAE
    Non-Native Speaking Mainstream North American Englishes
  112. phonology
    nonstandard pronunciation
  113. morphology
    different ways of forming words
  114. syntax
    variant sentence structures
  115. linguistic stereotyping
    stereotyping based entirely off accents
  116. linguistic self-hatred
    hating certain aspects of self because of stereotypes associated with it
  117. prosody
    when one partner converges or diverges to a greater or lesser extent, or fail to react, or behave in a contrasting manner
  118. relational messages
    verbal and nonverbal messagse that communicate how we feel about others
  119. expectancy violation theory
    ex. someone invades your personal "bubble" which could leave negative or positive views of them
  120. 3 types of proxemics
    • 1) fixed feature space: set boundaries
    • 2) semifixed feature space: furniture
    • 3) informal/personal space: "bubble" 
  121. contact cultures
    cultures that stand close together
  122. noncontact cultures
    cultures in which people stand further apart
  123. paralinguistics
    the study of vocal behaviors like voice qualities and vocalization
  124. voice qualities
    the "music" of the human voice
  125. vocalizations
    sounds we utter that do not have the structure of a language
  126. chronemics
    the concept of time and the rules that govern its use
  127. monochronic
    an orientation to time that assumes it is linear and is a commodity that can be lost or gained
  128. polychronic
    an orientation to time that sees it as circular and more holistic
  129. semiotics
    analysis of the nature of and relationship between signs
  130. semiosis
    process of producing meaning
  131. signs
    in semiotics the meanings that emerge from the combination of the signifiers and signified
  132. denotative
    dictionary definition
  133. connotative
    has to do with emotions, positive or negative (foxy)
  134. signified
    in semiotics, anything that is expressed in arbitrary words or signifiers
  135. low/pop culture
    popular things, television, music, videos
  136. high culture
    ballet, symphony, opera, fine art
  137. folk culture
    nonmainstream cultural activities that are not financially driven
  138. culture industries
    industries that produce and sell popular culture as commodities
  139. cultural texts
    pop culture messages whether TV, movies, advertisements, etc.
  140. media imperialism
    domination or control through media
  141. electronic colonialism
    domination or exploitation utilizing technological forms
  142. cultural imperialism
    domination through the spread of cultural products
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Com 321
Exam 2
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