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    • author "Jhoolay"
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    • fileName "PACOP2--Pharmacognosy"
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    • In 780 AD he described about 600 plants with medicinal properties in his book DeMat.
    • Dioscorides
  1. CA Seydler was long thought to be the the first person to introduce the term pcog but it was used earlier. Who wrote Lehrbuch der Materia Medica?
    JA Schmidt
  2. Papyrus Ebers, a document written in 1550 BC was found in the tomb of a mummy, it contained medicinal uses of plants and animals. Which ancient civilization wrote Papyrus Ebers?
  3. These are vegetable or animal drugs that consist of natural substances that have undergone only the processes of collection and drying.
    Crude Drugs
  4. What do you call plants growing in their native countries?
  5. This is the final step in the preparation of drugs for the commercial market, consisting of the removal of extraneous matter.
  6. Natural relationship existing among plants and among animals.
  7. In the preservation of crude drugs, this method is the simplest in preventing insect attacks and other forms of destruction.
    Exposure of the drug to a temp of 65C
  8. This refers to the evaluation by means of the sense organs and includes the macroscopic appearance of the drug, odor, taste, sound upon fracture, and feel to the touch.
    Organoleptic Analysis
  9. The first commercial application of the technique in pharmacognosy was made by Eli Liilly Company. Using the non-disease producing strain of E coli this company produced the hormone _____.
  10. Which of the following may influence the secondary constituents of plant drugs?
    • Genetic composition
    • Ontogeny
    • Envt
  11. These are products of natural origin, many of which without therapeutic effect used by the laity in the self-treatment diseases.
    Health foods
  12. Which of the ff statements are true?
    1. Gums and mucilages are CHOs
    2. Streptomycin is a CHO
    3. The conc. of secondary metabolites increases with age
    4. Biogenesis refers to the study of biochemical pathways leading to the formation of secondary constituents used as drugs.
    1,2, 4
  13. Which of the following pairs is correct?
    1. Reserpine-hypotensive
    2. Sambong-stomachic
    3. Bayabas-diuretic
    4. Lagundi-analgesic
  14. Which of the following statements is correct?
    1. Synthetic camphor is L-rotatory
    2. Natural camphor is D-rotatory
    3. Both natural and semisynthetic camphor are racemic
    4. 1 and 2
    5. 1 and 3
  15. Give the proper sequence of the following processes in the preparation of natural drugs.
    1. Garbling
    2. Collection
    3. Drying
    4. Harvesting
    5. Packaging
    2, 4, 3, 1, 5
  16. This classification of drugs considers the natural relationship or phylogeny among plants and animals.
    1. Taxonomic
    2. Morphologic
    3. Zoologic
    4. 1 and 2
    5. 1 and 3
  17. The source of bassorin.
  18. Mannitol is used pharmacologically as a...
    Osmotic diuretic
  19. Which of the following is/are homoglycans?
    1. Starch
    2. Inulin
    3. Gums
    4. AOTA
    5. 1 and 2
  20. The milk left after separation of the cream.
    Skimmed milk
  21. Fermentation product from molasses.
  22. It is also known as the carob pulp or St. John's Bread.
    Locust bean
  23. It tastes approximately half as sweet as sucrose and has the humectant properties which makes it a useful ingredient in toothpastes, chewing gums, and dietectic products.
  24. A pharmaceutic aid in the preparation of collodion and flexible collodion.
    Soluble guncotton
  25. Gum usually used as a substitute for acacia.
  26. It is also referred to as Japanese Isinglas, and it is extensively used as a gel in bacteriologic culture media.
  27. Powdered cellulose is the purified, mechanically disintegrated cellulose used as a self-binding tablet diluent and disintegrating agent. Which of the following statements regarding powdered cellulose is correct?
    1. The purity of cellulose is defined by its solubility in HCl
    2. The cellulose remaining insoluble is termed alpha-cellulose
    3. The greater the quantity of alpha-cellulose present, the higher the quality of the material
    4. 1 and 2
    5. 2 and 3
  28. The most important monosaccharides found in plants.
  29. Which of the following is a source of sucrose?
    1. Acer saccharum
    2. Bos taurus
    3. Prunus cereus
    4. Sorbus aucuparia
  30. Which of the following statement is true?
    1. Dextrose is alpha-L-glucopyranose
    2. Dextrose is obtained from controlled enzymatic hydrolysis of starch
    3. Dextrose can only be given PO and IV
    4. AOTA
  31. This is a product obtained from the incomplete hydrolysis of starch. It is a colorless or yelloish, thick syrupy liquid that is nearly odorless and tastes sweet.
    Liquid glucose
  32. Which of the following pairs is correct?
    1. Ferrous gluconate-hematinic
    2. Xylose-laxative
    3. Lactulose-diagnostic aid
    4. 1 and 3
    5. AOTA
  33. Which of the following statement refers to fructose?
    1. From honey
    2. Obtained from the inversion of aq solutions of sucrose
    3. Upon hydrolysis, sucrose yields a higher fructose than dextrose content
    4. 1 and 4
    5. 2 and 3
  34. In milk processing, the liquid separated from coagulum is known as...
  35. This is a pentose also known as wood sugar, which is obtained by boiling corn cobs, straw, or similar materials with dilute acid to hydrolyze the polymer.
  36. Which of the following statements concering lactulose is true?
    1. Natural sugar prepared by acidic rearrangement of lactose
    2. Trisaccharide
    3. Well-absorbed
    4. Baceria in the colon metabolize it to acetic and lactic acid
  37. Xylose is used as a...
    Diagnostic aid
  38. In glycolysis, what enzyme is involved in the conversion of 3 phosphoglyceraldehyde to 1,3-diphosphoglyceric acid?
  39. Aside from thiamine pyrophosphate, what coenzyme/cofactor aids in the oxidative decarboxylation of pyruvic acid with pyruvic acid dehydrogenase?
    Lipoic acid
  40. Glucose-6-PO4 is converted to ____ upon the action of phosphohexose isomerase
  41. Pyruvic acid, upon the action of pyruvic acid decarboxylase, yields ______.
  42. Alcohol dehydrogenase act on acetaldehyde to yield _____.
  43. What tricarboxylic aid was first isolated by Scheele in 1784?
    Citric acid
  44. This acid is a byproduct of the wine industry.
    Tartaric acid
  45. This acid is used as an acidulant, especially in feeding formulas.
    Lactic acid
  46. Which of the following may be produced from the process of distillation?
    1. Whiskey
    2. Rum
    3. Brandy
    4. AOTA
    5. Only 2 and 3
  47. Which of the following statements is true?
    1. Wine is sometimes used medically as a mild stimulant and tonic
    2. Brandy is used as a CNS stimulant
    3. Whiskey is used as a CNS stimulant
    4. AOTA
  48. Which of the following is obtained from Fraxinus ornus and is used for its laxative properties?
    1. Glucitol
    2. Mannitol
    3. Sorbitol
    4. Lactulose
  49. What is the usual diagnostic dose of mannitol injection?
    1. 200 mg/kg body wt in a 15-25% soln IV in 3-5 min
    2. 50-100g daily in a 5-25% soln by infusion
    3. 200g/kg body wt in a 15-25% soln IV in 3-5 min
    4. 50-100kg daily in a 5-25% soln by infusion
  50. Which ofthe following statements pertains to sorbitol?
    1. A hexitol from ripe berries of the mountain ash Sorbus aucuparia
    2. Twice as sweet as sucrose
    3. Used in toothpastes and chewing gums because of its humectant properties
    1 and 3
  51. Which of the following statements is true regarding starch?
    1. Alpha-amylase is an enzyme present in pancreatic juice and saliva
    2. Beta-amylase hydrolizes amylas to nearly pure maltose
    3. Amylase reacts with iodine to form a deep blue complex
  52. What do you call tacky proteins removed from corn and wheat in the preparation of starch?
  53. This refers to starch that has been mechanically or chemically processed to rupture all or part of the granules in the presence of water
    Pregelatinized starch
  54. At what percent does pregelatinized starch serve as a plasma expander?
  55. What is the useof sodium starch glycolate?
    Disintegrant for tablets
  56. This is formed from sucrose by the action of a transglucosylose enzyme system present in Leuconostoc mesenteroides.
  57. This is an example of a microbial gum.
  58. This is responsible for the swelling property of tragacanth
  59. Which of the following statements is correct?
    1. Pectin-cellulose derivatives
    2. Karaya-microbial gum
    3. Algin-marine gum
    4. Acacia-seed gum
  60. Which of the following is a seed gum?
    1. Algin
    2. Guar
    3. Pectin
    4. Karaya
  61. It is the gummy exudate from Sterculia urens and it consists of an acetylated heteropolysaccharide with a high component of galacturonic acid and glucuronic acid residues.
    Karaya gum
  62. This is a high molecular weight gum with pseudoplastic properties which enable it to be used in toothpastes and ointments.
  63. Which of the following is a microbial gum?
    1. Dextrin
    2. Xanthan
    3. Acacia
    4. Guar
  64. This is a dried, hydrophilic, colloidal substance extracted from Gelidium cartilagineum and Gracilaria confervoides
  65. This is a term to closely related hydrocolloids that are obtained from various red algae or seaweeds.
  66. Carrageenans can be separated into several components. Which of the following types of carrageenan is nongelling and is more useful as a thickener?
    1. Kappa
    2. Lambda
    3. Mu
    4. Iota
  67. Which of the following is obtained from Furcellaria fastigiata, a red algae?
    1. Agar
    2. Irish moss
    3. Danish agar
    4. Japanese isinglas
  68. This hydrocolloid is a galactomannan obtained from the powdered endosperm of Cyamopsis tetranogonolobus.
  69. This is used as a chocolate substitute.
    Locust bean
  70. What is the only form of glycoside that occurs in plants?
  71. Which drug has reduced forms of emodin-type glycosides in its fresh bark?
    Cascara sagrada
  72. What is used to treat Cascara sagrada extract to reduce its bitter taste?
    Magnesium oxide
  73. What is the principal anthraquinone glycoside contained in Aloe barbadensis?
  74. Which glycosidic drug is cultivated on lands resembling rice paddies?
  75. What chemical is used to extract 50-75% yield chrysarobin from Goa powder?
    Hot benzene
  76. Which anthraquinone glycoside is not employed as cathartic?
  77. What type of saponin glycosides are derivatives of steroids with spiroketal side chains?
    Neutral saponins
  78. Which health problem may be aggravated by increased consumption of large quantities of licorice?
  79. What amygdalin-containing preparation has anti-cancer claims?
    Vitamin B17
  80. What enzyme effects the hydrolysis of sinigrin?
  81. What is the pungent-tasting oil that is produced by the hydrolysis of Sinapis alba?
    Acrinyl isothiocyanate
  82. What is the alcohol produced by the hydrolysis of salicin by emulsin?
  83. Which of the following is true about uva-ursi
    1. Available in the form herbal teas
    2. Diuretic
    3. Weak urinary antiseptic
    4. AOTA
    5. 1 and 2
  84. Which of the following statements is true?
    1. Sennoside and cascara sagrada are equally potent
    2. Sennoside is a more potent laxative than cascara sagrada
    3. Sennoside is a less potent laxative than cascara sagrada
  85. Which of the following statements is/are true about castor oil?
    1. Castor oil should not be used by pregnant women
    2. It works primarily in the large intestine
    3. Dehydration is not a problem with the use of castor oil
    4. AOTA
    5. 1 and 2
  86. What insoluble, red-colored products are produced by the polymerization of tannins?
  87. What color is produced by tannins with K ferricyanide and NH4?
    Deep red
  88. What insect produces the excrescence nutgall?
    Cynips tinctoria
  89. What is mixture of esters of gallic acid with glucose?
    Gallotannic acid
  90. Which of the following is/are characteristics of hydrolyzable tannins?
    1. Consist of gallic acid or related polyhydric compounds esterified with glucose
    2. Most result from the condensation of 2 or more flavan-3-ols or flavan-3,4-diols
    3. Forms phlobaphenes
    4. AOTA
  91. What is the principal constituent of nutgall?
    Tannic acid
  92. Tannic acid is used mainly as a/an
  93. This drug, consisting of dried insects, is widely known as an aphrodisiac
  94. Skimmin, aesculin, and coumarin belong to what type of glycosides?
  95. Which of the following is a photosensitizing furocoumarin?
    1. Psoralen
    2. Cantharides
    3. Tannic acid
    4. Uva ursi
  96. Which of the following is a source of phenol glycosides?
    1. Uva ursi
    2. Coumarin
    3. Cantharides
    4. Hamammelitannin
  97. These are complex substances, usually mixtures of polyphenols, which are difficult to separate because the do not crystallize. At present, chromatographic analysis has enabled researchers to study them.
  98. Which of the following is/are phenolic glycoside?
    1. Arbutin
    2. Hesperidin
    3. Phloridzin
    4. AOTA
    5. 1 and 2
  99. What is the degradation productof penicillin-type antibiotics?
  100. This product is also known as catgut suture, surgical catgut, and surgical gut.
    Absorbable surgical film
  101. This is a coagulating enzyme which curdles the soluble casein in milk present in the mucous membrane of the stomach in mammals
  102. Bromelain is from Ananas comosus, commonly known as
  103. This enzyme is isolated from human urine or from human kidney cells by tissue culture techniques
  104. This enzyme is used as a spreading and diffusing factor
    Hyaluronidase for injection
  105. This enzyme is used as an ingredient in cleansing solutions for contact lenses.
  106. This enzyme is found in almonds,and it causes the hydrolysis of beta-glucosides. Amygdalin is thus hydrolyzed into glucose, benzaldehydez and HCN
  107. Papain is used as
    1. Meat tenderizer
    2. Contact lens cleaner
    3. Relieve symptoms of episiotomy
    4. Treatment of herniated lumbar intervertebral discs
  108. Sutilains are substances containing proteolytic enzymes which are topically used as ointments for wound debridement. Sutilains are derived from what organisms?
    Bacillus subtilis
  109. Which of the following statements is correct?
    1. Gelatin is obtained from the partial hydrolysis of collagen
    2. Gelatin is a complete protein source
    3. Gelatin is tryptophan-rich
    4. AOTA
  110. Which of the following pairs of lectins and their sources are correct?
    1. Ricin-locust bark
    2. Abrin-castor bean
    3. Abrin-jequirity bean
    4. AOTA
  111. What organism is the source of L-aspariginase?
    E. coli
  112. Which of the following is/are ADRs of Levodopa?
    1. N&V
    2. Akinesia
    3. Transient depression of granulocytes
    4. Rigidity
    1 and 3
  113. What is the primary form of vitamin D encountered in zoolig species?
  114. This is the major natural form of vitamin A.
  115. Pantothenic acid is also known as
    B5, chick anti-dermatitis factor
  116. Which vitamin(s) may be found in fish liver oil orother vegetable oils?
  117. Which of the following B vitamins occur in greatest proportion in dried yeasts?
  118. PABA is used as
    1. UV sunscreen
    2. Enhancer of sulfonamide antibacterial activity
    3. Enhancer of serum salicylate levels
    4. 1 and 2
    5. 1 and 3
  119. Prolonged oral antibiotic therapy may result in the deficiency of which vitamin?
  120. Which vitamin serves as a precursor of coenzyme A which is a cofactor essential for the metabolism of CHO, lipids, and CHONs.
    Pantothenic acid
  121. Clinical symptoms of folic acid deficiency
    Macrocytic anemia, megaloblastic anemia, glossitis
  122. Which vitamin must be supplemented in poisonings caused by cycloserine and INH?
  123. Which of the following is true regarding pyridoxine deficiency?
    1. Resembles niacin and riboflavin deficiencies
    2. Neurologic abnormalities
    3. Macrocytic anemia
    4. Tryptophan loading dose may be used for its diagnosis
    1, 2, 4
  124. Which of the following is true regarding enzymes?
    1. Enzymes are colloids, soluble in water and dil alcohol
    2. They exhibit optimal activity at 35-40C
    3. They maintain substantial activity at 0C
    4. They are destroyedat temperatures exceeding 65C
    1, 2, 4
  125. Which of the following is true regarding pancrelipase?
    1. Concentrated form of pancreatin
    2. Lipase activity is increased 20-fold compared to pancreatin
    3. Amylase and protease activity is increased 4-fold
    4. Contraindicated for steatorrhea
    1, 3
  126. Vitamin supplementationis technically unnecessary in cases when the individual has a balanced diet. In which conditions below would vitamin supplementation be necessary?
    1. Chronic alcoholism
    2. Lactation
    3. Cystic fibrosis
    4. AOTA
    5. 1 and 2
  127. Use of tretinoin
    Tx of acne vulgaris
  128. Paresthesias of the extremities or burning foot syndrome is the most distinctive deficiency symptom of this vitamin.
    Pantothenic acid
  129. What is the active constituent of wintergreen?
    Gaultheria oil
  130. This is a ketone volatile oil which is used as an antipruritic
  131. What type of volatile oil is citral?
  132. The most important contributor to lemon oil flavor
  133. The principal component of essential oils are
  134. Peppermint, cardamon, coriander,rose, orange flower, juniper, and pine oils are all examples of what type of volatile oil?
  135. What is formed by the reaction between nitric acid on rectified turpentine oil in the presence of alcohol?
  136. Volatile oils occur in specialized secretory structures. Which of the following pairs is correct?
    1. Modified parenchymal cells-labiatae
    2. Vittae-piperaceae
    3. Lysigenous/schizogenous passages-pinaceae
    4. Glandular hairs-rutaceae
  137. Which of the followwing statements regarding volatile oils is correct?
    1. VO may act as repellants
    2. VO may function as attractants
    3. The terpene derivatives are formed via shikimic acid-phenylpropanoid route
    4. The aromatic compounds are formed via the acetate-mevalonate pathway
    1 and 2
  138. Which of the following describes volatile oils?
    1. Low refractive indices
    2. Optically active
    3. Miscible with water
    4. Soluble in organic solvents
    2 and 4
  139. Volatile oils and fixed oils share several points of differentiation. Which of the following is true?
    1. Fixed oils can be distilled
    2. Volatile oils can be saponified with alkalies
    3. Volatile oils do not become rancid
    4. Fixed oils oxidize and resinify
  140. Which of the following is true about volatile oils?
    1. Become rancid
    2. Can be distilled from natural sources
    3. May be saponified with alkalies
    4. AOTA
  141. What type of extraction process is employed for substances that are injured by boiling?
    Water and steam distillation
  142. What type of process is employed in the extraction of volatile oils from citrus fruits?
  143. What type of extraction process is employed in extracting turpentine oil?
    Water distillation
  144. What type of extraction process is employed in obtaining mustard oil?
    Enzymatic hydrolysis
  145. What type of extraction process is applied to plant material that is dried and not subject to injury by boiling?
    Water distillation
  146. This is a general method for obtaining citrus oils by rolling the fruit overa trough lined by sharp projections which are long enough to puncture oil glands in the epidermis
  147. Which of the following methods is suitable in obtaining small amounts of volatile oils in plant parts such as flower petals?
  148. What type of distillation is employed to the plants in the family pinaceae when ther are heated without access to air?
    Destructive distillation
  149. This is the most widely distributed monocyclic terpene. It occurs in citrus, peppermint, caraway, cardamon, coriander, and other oils.
  150. Lipid metabolites formed in the bodyfrom essential unsaturated fatty acids from the diet.
  151. Which of the following is the most important dietary precursor of prostaglandins?
    Linoleic acid
  152. Which is not a product of arachidonic acid metabolism via the cyclooxygenase pathway?
  153. Prostaglandin E1 which is used as a palliative treatment to maintain temporarily neonates with patent ductus arteriosus is also known as
  154. These are esters of fatty acids with high MW monohydric alcohol.
  155. A natural prostaglandin used to terminate pregnancy from the 12th week throughthe 2nd trimester.
  156. This contains the highest concentration and greatest number of prostaglandins.
    Seminal fluid
  157. What are the main classes of prostaglandins?
    1. A
    2. B
    3. F
    4. AOTA
    5. 1 and 2
  158. The parent compound of all natural prostaglandins.
    Prostanoic acid
  159. They consist of 3 isoprene units
  160. What type of terpenes are found most commonly in volatile oils?
  161. A sesquiterpene from feverfew that acts as a serotonin antagonist.
  162. A sesquiterpenoid lactone isolated from Artemisia annua and has been traditionally used as an antimalarial.
  163. Paclitaxel, an antineoplastic from the bark of Taxus brevifolia, is classified as a
  164. What yields a triterpenoid with an antifeedant property?
    Azadirachta indica
  165. These form the largest class of terpenoids.
  166. Valerenic acid from valerian is used as
    Antianxiety agent
  167. Cineole is abundant in what plant oil?
    Eucalyptus oil
  168. What is the major constituent in fennel oil from Foeniculum vulgare?
  169. What phenolic ether volatile oil is obtained from Illicium verum?
    Chinese star anise oil
  170. What is the chemical name of the active isoprene unit in the biosynthesis of terpenoids?
    Isopentanyl pyroPO4 (IPP)
  171. It is regarded as the "ginseng of Europe" because it is extensively cultivated and utilized in European folk medicine.
  172. These are resinous mixtures containing cinnamic acids, benzoic acids, or both, or esters of these acids.
  173. The psychoactive constituent of the drug cannabis?
  174. The oleo-gum-resin obtained from Commiphora molmol?
  175. This is the oleo-gum-resin found in Astring-O-Sol.
  176. The dental analgesic that is chemically 4-allyl-2-methoxyphenol is commonly known as
  177. Examples of oleo-gum-resin
    1. Myrrh
    2. Asafetida
    3. Storax
    4. AOTA
    5. 1 and 2
  178. Clove oil (eugenol) is chemically classified as ____ volatile oil.
  179. Which source of volatile oil has gained a reputation among prison inmates of being a hallucinogenic drug?
  180. The scientific name of the source of spearmint oil
    Mentha piperita
  181. The solid or crystallized portion remaining after refrigeration of the peppermint oil.
  182. Which of the following is the source of cassia oil?
  183. Anise oil is chemically classified as what type of volatile oil?
    Phenolic ether
  184. Which of the following sources of volatile oils is used as antianxiety and sleep aid?
  185. Which of the following volatile oils is an ingredient in terpin hydrate elixir?
    Pine oil
  186. This volatile oil contains benzaldehyde
    Myristica oil
  187. Eucalyptus oil belongs to which plant family?
  188. Methylsalicylate or gaultheria oil is chemically classified as _____ volatile oil.
  189. These are amorphous products with a complex chemical nature and are believed to be oxidation products of terpenes.
  190. It is also known as may apple or mandrake and is employed as an antimitotic and caustic.
  191. This resin from pisracia lentiscus is used in the form of dental varnish to seal cavities.
  192. Which of the following is used as a flavor to disguise the bitterness of quinine preparations?
    1. Eriodictyon
    2. Mastic
    3. Yerba senta
    4. 1 and 2
    5. 1 and 3
  193. Which of the following are other names of cannabis?
    1. Indian hemp
    2. Hashish
    3. Marijuana
    4. AOTA
    5. 1 and 2
  194. This is used as a pharmaceutic aid for compound benzoin tincture.
    Tolu balsam
  195. Alpha and beta peltatins of podophyllum are responible for its _____ properties.
  196. This refers to the solid resin obtained from Pinus palustris which is used as stiffening agent in cerates, plasters, and ointments.
    1. Jalap
    2. Rosin
    3. Colophony
    4. 1 and 2
    5. 2 and 3
  197. Jalap and podophyllum are pharmaceutic resins obtained by
    1. Extracting the drug with alcohol and precipitating the resins with water
    2. Distillation to separate the oil from oleoresin
    3. Collecting the natural product that has exuded as oleoresin plant through natural or artificial punctures and from which natural oil has partially evaporated into the atmosphere
    4. Any of the above
  198. Mastic is a pharmaceutic resin obtained by
    1. Extracting the drug with alcohol and precipitating the resins with water
    2. Distillation to separate the oil from oleoresin
    3. Collecting the natural product that has exuded as oleoresin plant through natural or artificial punctures and from which natural oil has partially evaporated into the atmosphere
    4. Any of the above
  199. This is an example of a drying oil
    1. Linseed
    2. Olive
    3. Almond
    4. Peach kernel
  200. The alkali-catalyzed hydrolysis of fats and fixed oils is known as
  201. The basic nitrogenous compound present in lecithin
  202. The number of mg of KOH required to neutralize the free acids in 1g of sample
    Acid value
  203. Which of the following statements regarding fixed oils is true?
    1. Fixed oils are classified intro drying and non-drying oils
    2. When exposed into air, non-drying oils undergo oxidation with the formation of a tough, hard film
    3. The drying quality is caused by the presence of unsaturated fatty acids of a distinctive character such as linoleic and linolenic acids
    4. 1 and 2
    5. 1 and 3
  204. Which of the following pairs is correct?
    1. Castor oil-antirachitic
    2. Olive oil-emollient
    3. Lecithins-pharmaceutic aid for emulsions
    4. 1 and 2
    5. 2 and 3
  205. Which of the following is true regarding volatile oils?
    1. VO or essential oils are called olea aetheria in some countries
    2. The solid portion that separates upon standing of the VO is called eleoptene
    3. The liquid portion that separates is called stearoptene
    4. AOTA
  206. Examples of commercial stearoptenes
    1. Camphor
    2. Thymol
    3. Menthol
    4. AOTA
    5. 1 and 2
  207. Use of castor oil:
    1. Retardant for dental cement
    2. Anti-diarrheal
    3. Stimulant cathartic
    4. Emulsifying agent
  208. These are esters resulting from the condensation of high MW, straight chain fatty acids and high MW, primary, straight chain alcohols.
  209. Function of steroids
    1. Molting of insects
    2. Dev't of the reproductive system
    3. Induction of sexual reproduction in fungi
    4. Pigmentation
  210. The precursor of the biosynthesis of steroids.
  211. This is the animal source of Premarin, which is an example of conjugated estrogen.
  212. This the principal glucocorticoid substance of the adrenal cortex.
  213. Steroidal hormones are bound to
  214. Animal employed in the assay of digitalis glycosides
  215. Animal employed in the assay of insulin.
  216. This is the most lipid-soluble of the cardiac glycoside used in therapeutics.
  217. The oil obtained from a variety of rapeseed.
    Canola oil
  218. Water content of anhydrous lanolin
  219. Prostaglandin that is used orally in patients that are high risk for developing ulcers during NSAID therapy, which is banned in some countries due to its abortifacient property.
  220. The waxy substance derived from the head of Physeter macrocephalus
  221. The most important dietary precursor of prostaglandin is
    Linoleic acid
  222. Peanut oil is also known as
    Arachis oil
  223. The toxic lectin principle of Ricinus communis
  224. These are esters resulting from the condensation of high MW, straight chain fatty acids and high MW, primary straight chain alcohols.
  225. A fatty acid prepared from the pyrolysis of ricinoleic acid that has antifungal property.
    Undecylenic acid
  226. This is obtained from the lipid fraction of Glycine soja that can be used as a precursor of steroidal hormones.
  227. Animal employed in the assay of heparin.
  228. This is the powdered marc after the cacao is expressed.
    Breakfast cocoa
  229. Jojoba oil, a liquid wax expressed from the seeds of Simmondsia chinensis, belongs to the family
  230. Hyoscyamine, when racemized during extraction, is converted to
  231. Which of the following statements is/are true about alkaloids?
    1. Free alkaloids are sparingly soluble in water
    2. Alkaloids combine directly with acids to form salts
    3. Alkaloids are liberated from aq solns of their salts by acids
    4. Alkaloids form highly insoluble precipitates with salts of heavy metals
    1, 2, 4
  232. Broom, Cytisus scoparius, contains this alkaloid which is used for cardiac arrhythmia and as oxytocic.
  233. Which of the following is classified as a tropane alkaloid?
    1. Scopolamine
    2. Solanine
    3. Cinchonine
    4. Brucine
    5. Cephaeline
  234. Thalleioquine reaction is used to identify this alkaloid
  235. Strychnine and brucine are examples of _____ alkaloids
  236. Mescaline, a psychomimetic, is obtained from
    Lophophora williamsii
  237. This is preferred over caffeine in the treatment of cardiac edema and angina pectoris because it has little stimulant action on the CNS.
  238. Aside from antihypertensive action, reserpine is also officially used as a/an
    Adjunct in psychotherapy
  239. Atropine, an antidote in poisoning caused by physostigminr and organoPO4 insecticides, is an example of _____ alkaloids.
  240. A skeletal muscle relaxant from South American Arrow poison.
    Tubocurarine chloride
  241. Which of the following alkaloids exists as a liquid?
    1. Coniine
    2. Lobeline
    3. Atropine
    4. Quinine
    5. Tubocurarine
  242. The official animal used to assay curare alkaloids by the head drop cross-over method
  243. Thorn apple, which yields scopolamine, is called locally as
  244. Alkaloidal reagents are used to precipitate alkaloids. Which alkaloidal reagent is composed of phosphotungstic acid?
    Scheibler's reagent
  245. Paracelsus referred to it as the "stone of immortality".
  246. Vinblastine exerts its antineoplastic action by
    1. Intefering with DNA coding and replication
    2. Preventing the conversion of folinate to tetrahydrofolate
    3. Inhibiting DNA gyrase
    4. Interfering with the polymerization of tubulin into microtubules
    5. Modulating the immune system
  247. This substance, which was discovered by A. Hoffman, is considered as the most active and most specific hallucinogen known.
    Lysergic acid diethylamide
  248. Caffeine is used with this ergot alkaloid to treat migraine headaches.
    Ergotamine tartrate
  249. Serpasil is a prescription product of which alkaloid?
  250. Nicotine, an alkaloid from Nicotiana tabacum, is a derivative of
  251. This alkaloid contains an indole nucleus
    1. Pilocarpine
    2. Ephedrine
    3. Reserpine
    4. Caffeine
    5. Atropine
  252. This assay provides information about the percent extractive representing the total class of plant alkaloid.
    Proximate assay
  253. The chief source of hyoscine
    Datura fastuosa
  254. This alkaloid is employed in ophthalmology to treat glaucoma
  255. An ipecac preparation which is a component of poison antidote kits
    Ipecac syrup
  256. This alkaloidal reagent is composed of mercuric potassium iodide.
    Mayer's reagent
  257. Basic nitrogenous compounds of plant origin that are phyisically active
  258. Which of the following local plants yields an alkaloid of the pyridine-piperidine type?
  259. Which of the following alkaloidal reagents is composed of iodine in potassium iodide?
    Wagner's reagent
  260. Which of the following pairs is correct?
    1. Physostigmine-mydriatic
    2. Morphine-analgesic
    3. Brucine-central depressant
    4. Atropine-miotic
  261. Which of the following alkaloids is classified as an anthelmintic in veterinary practice?
    1. Lobeline
    2. Nicotine
    3. Arecoline
    4. Scopolamine
  262. Biologics may be classified as
    1. Antigen
    2. Antibody
    3. Antitoxin
    4. 1 and 2
  263. Active immunity may be acquired through:
    1. Recovery from an infection
    2. Series of administration of a vaccine
    3. Repeated injections of toxoid
    4. All of these
  264. All biologics are dated or carry an expiration date on their label because
    1. They do not retain their potency for an indefinite period
    2. The activity of a biological product is rapidly lost
    3. The biologichas its own half-life
    4. The biologics come from variable sources
  265. The following statements regarding vaccines are true:
    1. Vaccines are composed of attenuated/live/killed microorganisms
    2. Vaccines are given primarily to stimulate the passive immunity of an individual
    3. Vaccines are used as inoculations to stimulate the productions of antibodies
    4. Vaccines may be developed using recombinant technology
    1, 3, 4
  266. Which of the following statements regarding polio vaccines is true?
    1. Inactivated polio vaccine is commonly called trivalent oral polio vaccine (TOPV)
    2. Inactivated polio vaccine is more commonly referred to as Salk Polio vaccine
    3. Poliovirus vaccine inactivated is more commonly known as Sabin vaccine
    4. AOTA
  267. Measles vaccine is recommended for active immunization for
    1. Children 15 months or older
    2. Infants under 15 months
    3. Children 3 years old or older
    4. Children under 10 years of age
  268. Regarding bacterial vaccines, which of the following is true?
    1. An oral vaccine for typhoid is available as an enteric-coated tablet
    2. Meningococcal vaccines are not efficacious in children under 2 years
    3. Haemophilus B vaccines are used in children less than 18 months of age
    4. Pertussis vaccine is usually accompanied by a dose of APAP to reduce the risk of high fever and febrile convulsions
    1, 2, 4
  269. Diagnostic antigens are employed to
    1. Protect an individual from a disease
    2. Stimulate passive immunity
    3. Activate active immunity
    4. Determine whether an individual has developed hypersensitivity
  270. What is used to culture measles virus?
    Avian embryo tissue
  271. An allergic reaction is primarily due to the release of
  272. Poison ivy and oak contain a non-volatile phenolic principle producing allergic symptoms. This substance is known as
  273. The toxic component in castor bean
  274. Examples of bacterial vaccines
    1. Cholera vaccine
    2. Plague vaccine
    3. Hepa A vaccine
    4. TB vaccines
    1, 2, 4
  275. A two-plus (++) designation of a skin test means
    Erythema larger than 20mm in diameter but no wheal
  276. Weeds associated with pollinosis include members of
    1. Amaranthaceae
    2. Asteraceae
    3. Chenopodiaceae
    4. AOTA
  277. The most common outcome of the ingestion of a toxic plant is
    1. Acute dermatitis
    2. Hepatitis
    3. NVD
    4. Pneumonia
  278. Picrotoxin is a
    1. Narcotic analgesic
    2. Powerful anticonvulsant
    3. Central depressant
    4. Teratogen
  279. The toxic principle in jequirity bean is
    1. Dauricine
    2. Abrin
    3. Tung oil
    4. Gelsemine
  280. Most poisonous and non-edible mushrooms contain
    1. Muscarine
    2. Ibotine
    3. Amanitine
    4. 1 and 2
  281. Which is a teratogenic poison?
    1. Capsaicin
    2. Coniine
    3. Linamarin
    4. NOTA
  282. Toxic cyanogen found in cassava:
    1. Amygdalin
    2. Jacobine
    3. Linamarin
    4. Anabarine
  283. Factors contributing to the variability in the concentration of toxic components in plants may be:
    1. Plant part used
    2. Age of plant
    3. Climactic and soil differences
    4. AOTA
  284. Capsaicin, found in different species of capsicum, primarily causes irritation of what organ of the body?
  285. Which of the following is an example of an imidazole alkaloid?
    1. Green and white hellebore
    2. Nicotine
    3. Pilocarpine
    4. Hydrastis
  286. The coffee family belongs to what type of alkaloidal family?
  287. Which of the following statements is true regarding decaffeinized coffee?
    1. It normally contains 0.08% caffeine
    2. It normally contains 0.8% caffeine
    3. It has a higher price than ordinary caffeine
    4. 1 and 3
    5. 2 and 3
  288. Which of the following statements regarding pilocarpine is true?
    1. It is an imidazole alkaloid
    2. Cholinergic drug used in the treatment of glaucoma
    3. Mydriatic
    4. AOTA
    5. 1 and 2
  289. Which of the following statements is true regarding ephedrine?
    1. It is a component of a topical OTC preparation
    2. It is a cholinomimetic agent that stimulates alpha and beta receptors
    3. It is an example of a steroidal alkaloid
    4. It is an example of a purine base
  290. Which of the following ergot alkaloids is a component of Hydergin?
    1. Ergonovine maleate
    2. Methylergonovine maleate
    3. Ergotamine tartrate
    4. Ergotoxine
  291. Which of the following statements is true regarding ginkgo?
    1. Contraindicated in DM and pregnancy
    2. Cholinergic drug used in the treatment of glaucoma
    3. Toxic effects include HTN and cardiac arrest
    4. Has a drug-lab interaction with phenelzine
  292. Theophylline, prepared from the leaves and leaf buds of Camellia sinensis is an example of a purine base alkaloid. Which of the following statements is correct?
    1. Its astringent property is due to tannin content
    2. It has smooth muscle relaxant property
    3. It causes urinary retention
    4. 1 and 2
  293. Which of the following statements is true regarding theobromine?
    1. It is known as 1,3-dimethylxanthine
    2. It has little stimulant action on the CNS
    3. It is preferred over caffeine in the treatment of cardiac edema
    4. 1 and 2
    5. 2 and 3
  294. What do you call the active principle of poison ivy, Toxicodendron species, which may cause dermatitis upon penetration of the epidermis of the skin?
  295. The scientific name of lagundi is
    Vitex negundo
  296. The approved therapeutic use of lagundi is
    Remedy for asthma and cough relief
  297. Sambong is used as a
  298. Which of the following has been linked to high rates of oral and esophageal cancer?
    1. Camellia sinensis
    2. Quercus infectoria
    3. Areca catechu
    4. Blumea balsamifera
  299. Which of the following is the carcinogenic constituent found in nganga?
    1. Tannin
    2. Glycoside
    3. Alkaloid
    4. Volatile oil
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