Bio 2 Exam 3

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mebrittany
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Bio 2 Exam 3
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2012-06-25 11:27:53
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biology science
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Terms and info that could be on exam 3 and/or lab final.
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  1. What is Phylogeny?
    The evoluationary history of species. Figuring out who evolved from whom, or at least which critters are mostly closely related to each other. Lions are closer to tigers than to wolves.
  2. What is Taxonomy?
    Identifying and naming organisms.
  3. The older classification system from top to bottom:
    Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, and species. A phrase to help remember is: King Phillip Came Over For Good Sex.
  4. What is a Taxon?
    Particular level in the classification system.
  5. What is the new taxon that has been added to this classification system? It goes in front of Kindgom.
    Domain (Bacteria, Archae, and Eukarya)
  6. What is the official name of humans?
    Eukarya, Animalia, Chordata, Mammalia, Primates, Hominidae, Homo sapiens
  7. Carolus Linneaeus did what?
    In 1735 developed the binomial nomenclature.
  8. What is Binomial Nomenclature?
    Two-name system that is unique for each organism; genus and species; scientific name; Homo sapiens (human) Felis domesticus (domesticated house cat)
  9. What is a Common Name?
    What everybody calls the organism; humans, cats.
  10. What is a Genus?
    Group of animals closley related to each other; always capitalized and italicized, sometimes abbreviated.
  11. What is a species?
    Always italicized, but never capitalized or abbreviated; particular kind of organism.
  12. Both genus and species....
    Name should be italicized, on a lecture exam you would underline the words.
  13. What is the Morphological Species Concept?
    Most classifications in taxonomy are based on visible characteristics.
  14. What is the Genealogical Species Concept?
    Some classifications are based on how closely the DNA matches.
  15. What is the Biological Species Concept?
    Groups of actually or potentially interbreeding natural populations which are reproductively isolated from other sich groups.
  16. What is the Ecological Species Concept?
    A population which is ecologically isolated from other such groups. Example: There are severl different bird species that live in trees. Some live in the top of branches; others live in the bottom branches. That would be ecologically different.
  17. The 1st general taxon is Domain:
    Depends on whether you're eukaryotic or prokaryotic.
  18. Prokaryotic Cells:
    Smaller, lack nucleus and organelles; bacteria.
  19. Eukaryotic Cells:
    Bigger, have nucleus and organelles; more complex; plants animals, algae, fungi, protozoa.
  20. Bacteria:
    1 of the 3 domains, prokaryote, one celled bacteria, has peptidoglycan in cell walls.
  21. Archae:
    1 of the 3 domains, prokaryote, one celled bacteria, lacks peptidoglycan in cell walls, extremophiles (live at extreme temperatures, salt concentration, pH levels, etc)
  22. Eukarya:
    Eukaryote
  23. How many Kingdoms are within Domain Eukarya?
    4; Protista, Fungi, Plantae, and Animalia
  24. Protista:
    1 of the 4 Kingdoms, eukaryotic, one celled; amoeba, paramecium, malaria parasite
  25. Fungi:
    1 of the 4 Kingdoms, eukaryotics; often multicellular; gain energy from dead or decaying material; mushrooms, yeast, mold.
  26. Plantae:
    1 of the 4 Kingdoms, eukaryotics; multicellular; gets energy from sunlight
  27. Animalia:
    1 of the 4 Kingdoms, eukaryotic; multicellular; gets energy from eating other eukaryotes.
  28. Algae:
    Eukaryotic; can be one celled or multicellular, protist.
  29. Viruses:
    Very small, nonliving infection agents; must reproduce inside a host. They consist of a protein coat and nucleic acids (DNA or RNA).
  30. Prions:
    Disease causing infectious proteins. They lack nucleic material. Usually associated with eating contaminated brain tissue. Not considered alive. They can cause disease in humans.
  31. Viroids:
    Disease causing single stranded circular RNA molecules. They lack proteins. Usually infect plants, have infected animals. Only example in a humans is Hep D. Not considered to be alive.
  32. Bacteria:
    Bigger than viruses, smaller than eukaryotic cells; DNA is hereditary material; can live on their own; E. coli, Staphylococcus aureus. They don't need a host cell. They might live on you or inside your body, but they don't need to ine inside one of your cells. They are usually smaller than your cells, but they don't need to be inside.
  33. Bacterial Shapes:
    3 of them: bacillus, coccus, and spirillum.
  34. Bacillus:
    Rod shaped. Ex: Bacillus anthracis (anthrax)
  35. Coccus:
    Round shape. Staphylococcus aureus (staph infection) and Streptococcus pyogenes (strep throat) are both round. Staph and Strep are coccoid or round.
  36. Spirillum:
    Spiral shape. Syphilis is, but it's name doesn't indicate it. So is the bacterium that causes Lyme disease.
  37. All bacteria have a Peptidoglycan cell wall:
    Sturdy cell wall which protects that bacteria from harm; also gives bacteria its shape. Like the wall of a house determines its shape, the  cell wall determines whether the bacteria are rod, round, or spiral shaped.
  38. Gram stain:
    Tells whether or not bacterial have a cell wall; another way of classifying bacteria. You put a couple of chemicals on the bacteria. If they turn pruple, they are gram +, if they turn pink, they're gram -. Penicillin works best on gram + bacteria.
  39. Bacteria might have a Capsule:
    Sticky layer that can avoid your immune system or help bacteria stick to you. Streptococcus mutans is a bacteria with a capsule that helps it stick to your teeth causing tooth decay. It also sticks to Lactobacillus which produces lactic acid which eats through the enamel of your teeth.
  40. Bacteria could have Pili:
    Hair-like projections to attach bacteria to specific cells. Most bacteria are looking for a specific cell type to infect. Neisseria gonorrhea looks for reproductive cells, causes gonorrhea. The pili help the bacteria find the right cell type.
  41. Bacteria could have Flagella:
    One or more long projections for movement. Microbiologists figure about half of all bacteria have some sort of flagella. Bacteria do several different types of movements.
  42. Bacteria could have Chemotaxis:
    Movement in response to chemicals. If the bacteria senses food, it will use it's flagella to move toward the food. If the bacteria senses salt, it will move away from the salt. Notice the "taxi" in chemo taxis. You use a taxi to get somewhere, movement. Chemo means chemical.
  43. Phototaxis:
    Movement in response to light. Photo means light.
  44. Magnetotaxis:
    Movement in response to magnetic fields. Plants response to light.
  45. Bacteria could have Endospores:
    Dormant survial structures in certain bacteria; can survive boiling, freezing, 100's of years. Tetanus bacteria, Anthrax, and botulism bacteria all have this.
  46. Bacteria could have Plasmid:
    Extra circle of DNA that often has genes for resistance to drugs and antibiotics.
  47. Bacteria could have Exotoxins and Endotoxins:
    Exotoxins are produced by some pathogenic bacteria. They are toxins that exit the cell. Some examples are Staphylococcus aureus producing several exotoxins, including one that causes toxic shock syndrome. Another organism produces an exotoxin that causes lockjaw. Endotoxins are inside the cell and become a problem when a cell dies or is digested by another cell. Gram negatives produce these. Some examples of endotoxins that affect us are lyme disease, septic shock, and food poisoning.
  48. Bacterial Conjugation
    Bacteria can exchange plasmids with other bacteria. It doesn't even have to be the same bacterial species.The gonorrhea bacteria was one of the first to figure out how to avoid penicillin. Gonorrhea told all the other gonorrhea bacteria the secret, and then told several other bacteria like syphilis. Many gram + bacteria are resistant to penicillin because of bacterial conjugation.
  49. Binary Fission
    Bacteria replicate their DNA, get bigger, and split into 2 bacteria. Under ideal conditions, some bacteria can do this in 20 mins. That's actually very fast. In normal conditions, the average bacterial time is 24 hrs. Although some bacteria are much slower - tetanus, botulism. If the original bacteria has a penicillin plasmid in it, all the baby bacteria will have their own penicillin plasmid and won't be killed by a penicillin shot.
  50. Cyanobacteria:
    Bacteria that do photosynthesis; Oscillatoria. Cyano refers to blue. They usedto be called blue green aglae. The green part has chlorophyll which does photosyntesis. You saw Oscillatoria in the lab; it looked like pink and green thread. Cyanobacteria is thought to be responsible for putting oxygen into the earth's atmosphere. Before them, there were onlu anaerobic bacteria (they didn't need/use oxygen).
  51. Chemosynthetic:
    Use chemicals for energy. There are bacteria that use oil for energy.
  52. Anaerobes:
    Bacteria that can't live in oxygen. The tetanus bacteria is anaerobic. If you put it on your skin, it will die (actually it'll form an endospore). The botulism bacteria is anaerobic as well. That's why it grows so well inside the dented can with no oxygen.
  53. Nitrogen Fixing Bacteria:
    Change nitrogen gas into stuff plants can use. Airplane plants have nodes at their roots - bacteria.
  54. Certain Bacteria are Used by Humans to Make Cheese:
    You add lactobacillus to milk to make cheese. Fungi is added later for flavoring.
  55. Certain Bacteria are Used by Humans to Make Yogurt:
    You add Lactobacillus to milk at a high temperature to make yogurt.
  56. Certain Bacteria are Used by Humans to Ferment Cucumbers into Pickles:
    You don't have to add any bacteria; the bacteria are already present in and on your cucumber. Just give it some time and cucumbers will magically turn into pickles.
  57. Certain Bacteria are Used by Humans to Ferment Cabbage into Sauerkraut:
    Just like the cucumbers, cabbage has its own bacteria that will turn it into sauerkraut.
  58. Certain Bacteria are Used by Humans to Further Digest Food in Our Intestines.
    E. coli gets a bad rep because many strains can cause diarrhea. But a good E. coli strain helps digest down starch (plant carbohydrates).
  59. Certain Bacteria are Used by Humans to Make Vitamin K for Us:
    The same good E. coli strains makes vitamin K for us as well.
  60. Certain Bacteria are Used by Humans to Make Antibiotics:
    Bacitracin and streptomycin both come from bacteria and work against other types of bacteria.
  61. Domain Archae:
    Usually live in extreme conditions. Extremely hot, extremely cold, extremely acidic, extremely high pressure, etc. Some examples of these bacteria include: Methanogens, Haophiles, Thermophiles, and Acidophiles.
  62. Methanogens:
    Convert carbon dioxide into methane gas.
  63. Halophiles:
    Like high salt concentrations: Generally high salt concentrations (hypertonic) pull water out of the bacteria because of osmosis. But some bacteria like lots of salt. True halophiles like 15-30% salt concentrations. Ocean water is about 3% salt.
  64. Thermophiles:
    Like extreme temperatures; some hot, some cold temperatures. The bacteria that live in hot water geysers are thermophiles. So are the bacteria that live in the ice in Antarctica.
  65. Acidophiles:
    Like acidic environments. Usually the hot thermophiles also live in acid conditions and are acidophiles as well. Your book refers to them as thermoacidophiles, but you can break them into two separate categories.
  66. Kingdom Protista:
    Eukaryotic, one celled. A fairly general category where many things are thrown becuse they don't fit elsewhere. It's the miscellaneous taxon.
  67. Phytoplankton:
    Photosynthetic protistis in the ocean and lakes; basis (bottom) of aquatic food chain. Like single-celled plants.
  68. Phylum Dinofagellates:
    (dinos=whirling)Have 2 flagella; responsible for "red tides". Tend to have a slightly red color to them. Can cause high amounts of harmful toxins in shellfish, which when consumed by people can cause Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning. Harmful to humans.
  69. Diatoms:
    (diatomos=cut in half)(members of Phylum Bacillariophyta)Have silica shells; make up diatomacceous earth. Diatomaceous earth is a scrubbing agent found in all sorts of things like toothpaste and many polishes. It also does a great job of filtering things. Many people use diatomaceous earth in their swimming pool filteration system. The cell wall, from which these organisms derived their name, is composed of two halves which fit together much like a shoe box and lid. The porous cell wall contains large amounts of silica, giving diatoms their distinctive glass-like appearance. Due to their strudy cell walls diatoms have preserved well in the fossil record. Large accumulations of these organisms make up diatomaceous earth which is used as an abrasive, in industrial filters, and is frequently used in organic gardening.
  70. Euglenoids:
    Green protozoan with one flagella and eyespot; euglena. The euglena is a green color due to chlorophyll which also gives it the ability to do photosynthesis.
  71. Eyespot:
    Light receptor for phototaxis. Eu refers to true. The "glen" part refers to eyeball. True eyeball? Well, it is the first critter with at least one eye.
  72. Zooflagellates:
    (Phylum Zoomasrigophora)Nonphotosynthetic; have one flagella, one type causes African Sleeping Sickness. The "zoo" part kind of refers to a zoo with animals; animals don't do photosynthesis. The "flagellate" part does mean they have 1 flagella. African Sleeping Sickness comes from Trypanosoma bruceii protozoan; over the course of 10-15 years you gradually lose interest in anything, slip into a coma, and literally sleep to death. Another type of zooflagellate causes Giradiasos, diarrhea from a protozoan found in many lakes and streams in this country and others.
  73. Sarcodines:
    Moved by pseudopodia; amoeba. Amoebas can cause amoebic dysentery or diarrhea.
  74. Ameobazoans:
    They have pseudopodia - false feet. Pseudo means false. Podia refers to feet. An ameoba is an example.
  75. Sporozoans:
    Parasitic, but no means of locomotion; malaria parasite. Plasmodium vivax or the malaria protozoan is one of the few protisits that live inside one of your cells. As it grows inside your red blood cells, you get chiils. When they burst out of your red blood cells and into the bloodstream, you get a fever. The chills & fever cycle wil repeat over and over again.
  76. Ciliates:
    Have cilia; paramecium.
  77. Cilia:
    Many short, projections used for locomotion. The paramecium has little hairs all over its body.
  78. Phylum Rhodophyta:
    Red algae; used as thickening in ice cream. Professor put the algae in with the protists.
  79. Phylum Phaeophyta:
    Brown algae; includes most seaweed and kelp.
  80. Phylum Chlorophyta:
    Green algae; includes spirogyra, volvox, and ulva. These three are some of the most identify-able microscopic things around. Spirogyra is long stringy green stuff. Ulva is sea lettuce. Volvox is a round green thing. Phylum Chlorophyta is almost the samee as land based plants. The green algae have most of the characterisitics that land based plants have; only green algae lives in water. The rest of the green stuff with be land parts.
  81. Kingdom Fungi:
    Eukaryotic, multicellular, nonphotosynthetic; mostly gets engery from dead or decaying organisms; have filamentous bodies. They have all these little fibers that stick out, and that's how they take in nutrients. They have cell walls made of chitin (not cellulose like in the cell wall of plants).
  82. Hyphae:
    Single elongated cells
  83. Mycelium:
    Interwoven mass of lots of hyphae. If you have a single cell, you have one hyphae. But if you put 100 hyphae together, the whole thing becomes a mycelium. One tree; 100 trees = a forest. One hyphae; 100 hyphae = a mycelium.
  84. Fruiting Body:
    Reproductive structure growing above surface; muchroom cap, mold on bread. The mycelium and hyphae grow inside something (the ground or bread). When the fungi is ready to reproduce, it sends up a fruiting body to the surface. That's when you see the fungus. The mushroom cap is the most familiar example of a fruiting body. If you scrape the mold off of the bread, you have scraped off the fruiting body, but you haven't done anything to the mycelium or hyphae inside the bread.
  85. Saprobe:
    An organism that gets its energy from dead or decaying organisms; mushrooms. Fungi are saprobes. Fungi live in dead things. Some bread mold is growing on a dead substance. Mushrooms grow on piles of fertilizer; that would be decaying things.
  86. Nurse Log:
    When a tree falls, the fungi start breaking down the tree into its component parts into fertilizer. Baby trees will grow along the original dead tree (nurse log).
  87. Parasite:
    An organism that harms another organism; ringworm, athlete's foot fungus. Parasites generally live on you and  take your food, and harm you. Generally you get sick with some disease. Some fungi are parasitic, rather than being a saprobe and waiting for you to die.
  88. Athlete's Foot:
    Trichophyton. Caused by a fungus that lives on your feet, takes your nutrients, and gives you and itchy rash. The mycleium of the fungus lives beneath your skin. Most of the medicines for this are some sort of cream that you rub on your feet. There are over the counter and prescription medicine for this. Bacteria like damp locations, going barefoot will help keep feet dry.
  89. Jock Itch:
    Caused by a fungus in the groin. Most of the same meds for athlete's foot will work here too.
  90. Ringworm:
    Trichophyton. Caused by a fungus, not a worm. The fungus starts spreading outward in a circle. The edges tend to be slightly raised, which makes it look like there is a worm growing underneath the skin. The raised area is most likely the mycelium growing under the skin. Can grow anywhere except feet and groin.
  91. Most fungi...
    can reproduce sexually or asexually.
  92. Spores:
    Samm, resistant structures that can produce new fungi; can be sexual or asexual. Fungi are haploid. They can make spores, which are still haploid. The haploid spores can do one of 2 things. They can just make fungus, which would be asexual reproduction. Or a habloid spore can meet up with another haoloid spore. This would make a diploid fungus. That's a problem since fungi are haploid. The dipload critter does meiosis to make haploid spores again which will develop into a haploid fungus.
  93. Benefits of fungi - Edible:
    Mushrooms, truffles. Some varieties of mushrooms are edible. Anything you buy in the store should be an edible mushroom. Don't eat the mushrooms growing in your backyeard! If you spot a red or orange mushroom, don't eat it! Thtat one is poisonous! Real truffles are not made of chocolate.
  94. Benefits of fungi - Decomposition
    Decompose dead organisms.
  95. Benefits of fungi - Pest Control
    A live grasshopper can be killed by a fungus, can digest the grasshopper.
  96. Benefits of fungi - Antibiotics:
    Including penicillin. Penicillin is made from a particular fungus that lives on bread.
  97. Benefits of fungi - Make Foods
    Yeast in bread, wine, and beer; fungi for cheese. Blue cheese and rotifer cheese along with Roquefort, Brie and Camembert is flavored with a mold from the penicillin family.
  98. Division (Phylum) Zygomycota:
    Produce zygospores; including black bread mold. Black bread mold is the most common mold to find on bread, not the penicillin mold.

    • The smallest of the fungal divisions, encompassing only about 600 species, this primitive group includes bread molds. A common member of this division is Rhizopus stolonifer (the black bread mold). Rhizopus grows rapidly when spores land in favorable conditions such as stored bread, fruit or veges.
    • Pilobolus, a small but interesting species of sygomycete, grows in dung, are able to fling it's spores on the direction of sunlight, it is then ingested by an herbivore and it begins again. (Note: Spores may be thrown two meters away or more, and at speeds approaching 50 km per hour)
  99. Zygospores:
    Sexual reporduction; 2 haploid spores fuse to create a diploid spore which undergoes meiosis to make more haploid spores.
  100. Division (Phylum) Ascomycota:
    Sac fungi. Sometimes you hear this one called ascomycetes. But it tends to leave its spors in a sac or ascus. Common fungi in Ascomycota include Dutch Elm disease, truffles, fungus that cuases rye smut, Baker's yeast, Brewer's yeast, yeast that causes infection and diaper rash.

    Commonly called the "Sac Fungi" because spores are produced in sac-like structures called asci, this division contains over 60,000 species of fungi, including many which are important in the food industry. Gourmet delicacies like the morels and truffles as well as the unicellular yeast (which are used in the prep of bread and beer) are ascomycetes. More include fungus that causes Dutch Elm Disease and the Chestnut Blight, along with Penicillium and Aspergillis.
  101. Dutch Elm Disease:
    Dutch Elm disease causing fugus; which kills Dutch Elm trees.
  102. Truffles:
    They are fungi that people eat, and they use pigs to find truffles.
  103. Rye Smut:
    Fugus that causes rey smut. This is a fungus that gets on many rye or wheat plants and produces toxins which are chemcially close to the active ingredients in LSD. The toxins causes hallucinations and phantom pains. They thing this may have been the original cause of the Salem witch trials.
  104. Baker's Yeast:
    Is used to make bread rise. Sacchromycete cereversii is it's formal name.
  105. Brewer's Yeast:
    Used to make all sorts of alcoholic beverages. Sacchromycete cereversii is put into beer, wine, and other distilled alcoholic spirits.
  106. Yeast:
    Yeast that causes yeast infection and diaper rash. Candida albicans. Fungi which causes infections of the skin are collectively called dermatophytes.
  107. Division (Phylum) Basidiomycota:
    Club fungi; includes most mushrooms, puffballs, shelf fungus, and corn smut. Producde a very visible fruiting body; the mushroom cap is the most familiar example. The spores are found underneath  the cap in the gills. The basidiomycota hyphae tend to grow out from the center. The older hyphae die, but the younger keep growing outward.

    • (basidium=little pedestal, myco/mycete=fungi) Approximately 25,000 species are contained in this division, including all but a few of the known mushrooms, toadstools, shelf fungi, puffballs, and earthstars. These are important decomposers of plant material since they are one of the few organisms which can break down ligninm a major component of wood.
    • Periodically the mycelium will produce a fruiting body, the basidiocarp, which will produce millions (or billions) of spores. Spore-release varies from group to group, depending upon the anatomy of the fruiting body. Spores are produced between the gills of the gill mushroom and are released as the cap opens. The puffballs and their close relatives,  the earthstars, release a puff of spores when a raindrop hits the basidiocarp or when an animal or wind disturbs it.*963
  108. Fairy Ring:
    Ring of mushrooms from younger hyphae growing outward in a circle.
  109. Phylum Deuteromycota:
    Imperfect fungi; only asexual reproduction. Includes: fungus that makes penicillin (blue/gray in color) , fungi used to flavor many cheeses; fungus that cause athlete's foot, and fungus that causes ring worm
  110. Lichens:
    • Symbiotic relationship between fungi and algae. (Roughly 14,000 species) The fungi in this relationship (typically a cyanobacterium or a unicellular green algae) is usually from Division Ascomycetes, though they cannot be easily placed in a particular division; since they are not actually free-living organisms.
    • Growing on rocks, tree bark or soil, lichens can be found in several different body types. Three common types are fruticose (upright/shrubby), foliose (leaflike), and crustose (flat/crusty). Lichens grow slowly (as little as an inch in 10 years), growing actively when circumstances are favorable and becoming dormant when conditions are poor. As slow growing as lichen are, they appear to be very long-lived and a patch may be thousands of years old.
    • Lichens are used to make dyes, medicines, and in the preparation of perfumes. Lichens are also highly sensitive to air pollution and can be used as reliable indicators of air quality.
  111. Symbiotic:
    2 organisms live together. You've seen the African rhinoceros with the white birds on his back. The birds eat ticks and fleas off the rhino. The rhino doesn't have parasites and the bird gets a meal.
  112. Lichens are algae and fungi living together:
    The algae do photosynthesis for the fungi. The fungi absorb nutrients and water for the algae. Lichens can and do grow on even rocks. Usually when you se a brightly covered spot on something outside, it's a lichen not mold. Lichens also grow on trees.
  113. Mycorrhizae:
    Symbiotic relationship between fungi and plant roots. The plants are doing photosynthesis and the fungi are absorbing water and nutrients again. The fungi that helps form mycorrhizae are from Phylum Glomeromycetes. Approximately 90% of the trees in the forest have this relationship with fungus.
  114. Streptococci:
    Form chains of spherican cells, much like beads on a string.
  115. Staphylococci:
    Form clusters of spherical cells resembling a bunch of grapes.
  116. Cyanobacteria:
    Blue-green algae, are ancient photosynthetic prokaryotes. One type is Oscillatroia forms long chains of cells which appear stacked when viewed microscopically.
  117. Bacterial Culturing
    One common procedure, several milliliters of sterilized, liquified nutrient gelatin (agar - seaweed extract) is poured into a petri dish and allowed to harden. A sterilized wire loop or cotton swap is used to collect bacteria from the area being tested and deposit it onto the surface of the agar. Any bacteria present will multiply, forming collections of cells called colonies. Petri dish are examined 1-5 days later for the presence of bacterial growth. They're put in an incubator at 37 C or 97.6 F.
  118. Heterotrophic:
    Feeding on other organisms.
  119. Autotophic:
    Phyotosynthetic
  120. Food Vacuoles:
    Contain and break down food particles.
  121. Contractile Vacuoles:
    Cont. pump excess water out of the cell.
  122. Phylum Rhizopoda
    (rhizo=rootlike; poda=foot) includes the single-celled amoebas that can be found living in water (both fresh and marine) or in terrestrial environments, such as wet leaf-litter or soil.
  123. Amoebas
    A few are important parasites, including Entamoeba histolytica which causes amoebic dysentery in humans when comsumed in contaminated food or water. They move by pseudopod (an extension of the body).
  124. Phylum Ciliphora
    Includes some of the most complex protists known. Ciliphorans are characterized by the presence of cilia (short, hair-like projections which give this phylum its name), used for locomotion and feeding. One common example of this phylum is Paramecium, a free-living protisit found in fresh water. Paramecia, like most members of this phylum, possess multiple nuclei. The single, large, macronucleus directs day-to-day activities of a cell as well as controlling asexual reproduction. One or more smaller micronuclei function in sexual reproduction. Cilia sweep bacteria or other food particles down the oral groove and into the cell mouth where they are broken down in small food vacuoles. Waste products are later expelled through the anal pore.
  125. Phylum Chlorophyta
    (chloros=green) includes all the photosynthetic green algaes. Size ranges widely within this group and members may be single celled, colonial, or even large and multicellular. The important similarities existing between the multicellular green algaes and the higher plants suggest an evolutionary relationship between the two groups. It is thought that land plants probably evolved from multicellular algaes which were stranded on land as periodic floods or tides receded.
  126. Volvox
    One species of freshwater colonial green algae. Hundreds (or even thousands) of individual cells are permanently attached to one another in a hollow, spherical colony. Daughter colonies are produced through asexual reproduction.
  127. Spirogyra
    Another colonial algae which often collects in stringy mats on the surfaces of freishwater streams and ponds. Gets its name from the large, spiraling green chloroplasts found within the cells. Asexual reproduction causes these filaments to grow i length as new cells are added. The algaes are also capable of sexual reproduction through conjugation with another filament.
  128. Multicellular Algaes
    The largest most advanced members of the Kingdom Protist, some of which reach over 200 feet in length. These organisms are commonly referred to as seaweeds, though they're not all found in salt water. At 1st glance these organisms might appear to be more accuratley placed with the plants rather than with the protists, and indeed there are a number of similarities between the two groups. Seaweeds generally don't have the high degree of internal specialization seen in the plants, however. Seaweeds are classified as Red, Green, or Brown Algae, based on internal pigments they contain.
  129. Herbarium Mounts
    Acid free paper used to preserve large specimens for decades or longer.
  130. Protoslo
    A thickening agent which causes the organisms to swim more slowly while observing them through a microscope.
  131. Fungi:
    All non-photosynthetic, land-living, eukaryotes. They are almost all multicelled, though one important group, the yeasts, are unicellular.
  132. Most fungi are Saprophytic:
    Consuming dead or decaying organic matter, and acquire their nutients by absorption.
  133. Divisions:
    Equivalent to Phylum in the other Kingdoms. They're divided into divisions based on their mode of reproduction.
  134. Decomposers:
    Breaking down dead and decaying materials and returning nutrients to the soil or air.
  135. On a Cellular Level Fungi Differ From Members of Other Kingdoms in Several Important Ways - Septa
    The cells of most fungi are separated from each other by incomplete walls (septa). Openings between cells are usually large enough to allow the flow of cytoplasm and even some organelles between adjacent cells.
  136. On a Cellular Level Fungi Differ From Members of Other Kingdoms in Several Important Ways - Chitin
    The cell walls of fungi do not contain cellulose, as plant cells do, but are instead strengthened with chitin (a carbohydrate commonly found in the exoskeletons of arthropods). Since they are non-photosynthetic, fungal cells do not contain chloroplasts.
  137. Budding
    Yeasts are able to reproduce asexually through budding. In this form of reproduction, a single parent cell give rise to one or more genetically identical daughter cells.
  138. Devil Cigars:
    Find them in cross timber region of Texas and near Cider Elms.
  139. Aspergillis
    Responsible for causing Aspergillosis, a potentia;;y fatal pulmonary disease. Also known as "Farmers Lung", this disease results when spores are inhaled and begin to grow in the lung. Other species of Aspergillis infect food crops like corn, peanuts, rice and soybeans, particularly if they are stored in warm, moist conditions after harvesting, producing potent toxins known to cause cancer.
  140. 4 Factors of Kingdom Plantae (According to Professor):
    • 1. Multicellular
    • 2. Dependent embryo
    • 3. Cell wall (made of cellulas)
    • 4. Photosynthesis
  141. Kingdom Animalia
    Multicellular, eukaryotic, but no cell wall; sponges, insects, humans.
  142. Phylum Porifera:
    No tissues or symmetry; sessile; have spicules; sponges. Sponges don't have any tissues and no symmetry so they can't be cut into equal halves. Therer is no right or left or front or back, they just are.
  143. Sessile:
    Sponges also stay in one place.
  144. Spicules
    Tiny spikes made of calcium carbonate. The "body" of the sponge can be spongy or it can be firm. Many sponges have these.
  145. Spongocoel
    A central cavity. The water flow in through pores in the sponge's body. If the sponge cells need some food they grab a bacteria on its way through the spongocoel.
  146. Most sponges are - Hermaphroditic:
    Contains both male and female reproductive parts. Sponges aren't really male or female; they have both parts.
  147. Phylum Cnidaria
    Radial symmetry; have polyps and medusa; carnivorous; hydra, coral, Portuguese Man of War (?) (Professor's words)
  148. Radial Symmetry
    A cut through any plane will give identical halves. Not just a right or left half, any plane gives identical halves.
  149. Polyp
    Sessile form, often cylindrical with tentacles pointed upward; sea anemone. Sea anemones are generally sessile on the ocean floor. They have a cylindrical body with tentacles on top.
  150. Medusa
    Free swimming form, often bell shaped with tentacles pointed downward; jelly fish.
  151. Sea anemones
    Spend most of their time in the polyp form, but to reproduce they bud off a medusa. The medusa form will swim around until it finds a place to land. A jelly fish spends most of it's time swimming around as a medusa, but it does have a stationary polyp form. The "class" taxons of Phylum Cnidaria are classified based on whether they spend more time in the polyp form, more time in the medusa form, or equal time in both forms. Either form preys on other smaller critters using the tentacles.
  152. The tentacles have special cells called Nematocysts:
    Cells in tentacles that shoot out a dart on a filament. The dart penetrates the victim and the filament brings it back to the Cnidarian to eat.
  153. Coral
    The coral is also in a symbiotic relationship with several species of algae. Coral is a special organism in Phylum Cnidaria. It's algae often give the coral it's pretty colors. When they talk about coral bleaching, they're referring to the symbiotic algae dying.
  154. Phylum Platyhelminthes
    Flatworms; acoelomate; many are parasitic; bilateral symmetry; cephalization; planarian, tapeworm, liver fluke. "Helminth" is Latin for worm. The "platy" part doesn't really stand for plate, but if you think of a dinner plate, it is flat.
  155. Acoelomate
    Without a cavity between the digestive tract and the outer body wall. Flatworms don't have a cavity, if you open them up, you are in the flat worm's stomach.
  156. Many flatworms...
    are parasitic and invade humans as well as other animals.
  157. Bilateral symmetry
    The body can be cut through the center in only one plane to yield equal halves. It's rather like us humans; you can only cut us on one plane to give a right and left halves.
  158. Cephalization
    Has a definite head end with sense organs.
  159. Liver Flukes
    Are parasitic. Often liver fluke larva infect a snail until it is big enough. Then the larva burrows into fish; the fis hgets eaten by a human. Or sometimes the larva skips the fish and goes straight for the human. From there it matures into an adult liver fluke.
  160. Scolex
    Head end of a tape worm is armed with hooks and suckers to keep tapeworm attached to digestive system.
  161. Tapeworms
    Come from undercooked meat and latch onto your intestine, eating your food. See them quite often in cats and dogs. Used to be used in a diet plan.
  162. Phylum Nematoda
    Round worms; Trichnella spiralis, Ascaris, hookworms, heart worms
  163. Trichnella spiralis
    Causes trichinosis, the disease you get from eating undercooked pork. The pig eats contaminated materials, the roundworm lodges in the pig's muscle tissue. If you don't cook the meat properly first, you could pick up a roundworm. Not common in the US.
  164. Ascaris
    A common worm to see in labs. The male has a hooked shaped tail, while the female's tail is straight. Ascaris is the most prevalent worm disease in this country. And the worm is big enough to see without a microscope; 12-18 inches. Generally microscopic roundworm eggs arer ingested  through contaminated food or through breathing contaminated dirt.
  165. Hookworm
    Can actually penetrate intact skin. It burrows into your foot, it heads for the bloodstream to the lungs, up the trachea to the esophagus, and down to the small intestine. Sucks your blood for it's food.
  166. Heart Worm
    Cats and dogs get these. Transmitted through mosquito bites. There is a medicine to prevent heart worms, best to use that before as a preventative.
  167. Phylum Annelida
    Segmented worms; earthworms, leeches. While there is definitely segments on earthworms, each segment cannot function independently. But each segment can become specialized. They also have a coelem and a closed circulatory system. In facr earthworms have 5 hearts. They are substrate feeders; they livei n and eat through their food.
  168. Class Oligochaeta
    Few bristles; earthworms. "Oligo" refers to few; "chaeta" must be bristles. Earthworms do have a few almost microscopic bristles that it uses to help push it through the soil.
  169. Class Polychaeta
    Many bristles; marine worms. "Poly" means many. There are marine worms that live underwater, rather than on land.
  170. Class Hirudinea
    No bristles; secretes hirudin which keeps blood from clotting; leeches.
  171. Phylum Echinodermata
    Spiny skinl radial symmetry, no segmentation, endoskeleton, water vascular syste; star fish, sand dollar, sea urchin. "Echino" means spiny and "dermata" reters to the epidermis of the skin.
  172. Endoskeleton
    Skeleton (plates) on the inside
  173. Water Vascular System
    Network of tubes that go from tube feet throughout the body; functions in locomotion, feeding and gas exchange. The little tube feet are suckers that keep the echinoderm attached to a surface.
  174. Phylum Arthropoda
    jointed feet; have jointed appendages, exoskeleton, open circulatory system; shrimp, lobster, insects, spiders. The term "arthro" refers tk joints and "poda" meas feet. The jointed appendages refers tp jointed arms or legs. These are the first critters with arms or legs. Jelly fish just had tentacles. Tapeworms don't have anything.
  175. Exoskeleton
    • Rigid external skeleton. Many aquatic animals with any kind of skeleton have their skeleton on the outside. Crabs have a hard shell, Clams and mollusks have tender pieces inside their shell or exoskeleton.
    • An exoske;

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