Mouth --> Esophagus --> Stomach --> Small intestine --> Larhe intestine --> Rectum --> Anus
Where does digestion begin? What marcomolecule first begins digestion and with what enzyme?
Digestion begins in the mouth ; Digestion of startch (carb) with alpha-amylase
What is the bolus transformed into in the stomach?
What kind of glands does the stomach contain?
Exocrine glands - known because they release enzymes
Where does protein digestion start and with what enzyme?
In the stomach with pepsin
4 cells in stomach and their actions
1. Mucous cells - lubrication+protection from pH
2. Chief cells - secrete pepsinogen
3. Parietal cells - secrete HCl
4. G cells - secrete gastrin (stimulate parietal cells to secrete HCl)
Where does absorption occur?
Parts of the small intestine and what occurs where
1. Duodenum - most digestion
2. Jejunum - absorption
3. Ileum - absorption
Surface of small intestinal wall
Brush border (contains enzymes to break down carbs, proteins, and nucleotides)--> microvilli --> Villi (increase surface area for absorption) --> lacteal capillary network (site of nutrient absorption) -->
Exocrine glands within villi = secrete 7.6 intestinal juice
Found in the small intestine, secrete mucus for protection
What is the pH in the small intestine and why does it have its value?
pH of 6
Slightly basic compared to stomach because of bicarbonate ion
What does the pancreas secrete through its exocrine abilities?
All enzymes released from pancreas are released as...
Zymogens! Activated by trypsin
How are carbohydrates absorbed?
Broken down into di and trisaccharides by pancreatic amylase
Further broken to monosaccharides by brush border enzymes
Absorbed as monosaccharides
Where is bile produced and stored? What are its functions?
Produced by the liver and stored in the gall bladder
Bile emulsifies fat in the small intestine, increasing its surface area and making it easier to be absorbed by enterocytes
Bile does NOT digest fat at all
What is bilirubin?
Endproduct of Hb degradation
What are the major functions of the large intestine?
1. Water absorption
2. Electrolyte absorption
3. Symbiotic hub for gut flora like E.Coli (produce Vitamins)
What composes healthy poop?
2. Dead bacteria
4. Inorganic matter
What do the hormones secreted by the small intestine do?
Increase blood insulin levels , peptide hormones
1. Broken down into monomers glucose, fructose, galactose
2. Absorbed via secondary active transport glucose absorbed into enterocyte with Na+) 3. Glucose move out of cell via facilitated transport from intestinal lumen --> enterocyte ... but passive/facilitated diffusion from enterocyte --> blood
4. Carried to liver
5. If max [glycogen] reached by cells, converted to fatty acids
Where does the conversion of glucose to fat take place?
Liver + fat cells
1. Absorbed into enterocytes via active or facilitated transport
2. Cells immediately make protein from amino acids to keep amino acid  low
What is ammonia converted to and by what?
Converted to urea by the liver and then excreted by the kidney
Energy in protein, carbs, and fat
Fat > Carbs > Protein
1. Separated by bile micells and broken down by lipase and brush border enzymes
2. Once in cell, fats re-converted into triglycerides at sER
3. Attached to apoproteins = chylomicrons
4. Exocytosed by cells
5. Move into lacteal of lymph system
6. Enter thoracic duct
7. Jugular Vein
8. Absorbed into liver and other cells
Blood supply to liver
1. Nutrients: hepatic portal vein
2. Oxygen: hepatic artery
8 jobs of the liver?
1. Blood reservoir
2. Blood filtration
3. Carbohydrate metabolism
4. Fat metabolism
5. Protein metabolism
6. Detoxification (lots of sER)
7. RBC destruction (but mostly by spleen)
8. Vitamin storage
osmoregulatory factor, binds to lipids to transport through blood
How does oxidation of protein and fat by the liver affect blood pH?
pH will DECREASE, acidity increases
Functions of the kidney
1. Excretion of waste
3. pH control
Path of excretion
Urine created by kidnet and emptied into --> renal pelvis --> ureter --> bladder --> urethra
What molecules are PREVENTED from filtering into the bowman's capsule through the glomerulus?
Blood cells and large proteins
Where does most reabsorption in the kidney take place?
1. glucose, amino acids, vitamins, and water is reabsorbed
2. Toxins, uric acid, drugs, and H+ ions are secreted
What is the job of the Loop of Henle?
To concentrate the renal medulla! This will allow for H2O absoroption later on...
Filtrate entering loop is more concentrated than filtrate exiting loop.
Descending: water absorbed
Ascending: Na+ absorbed
What is the job of the distal tubule?
Lower filtrate osmolarity
Reabsorption of Na+ and Ca2+
Secretion of K+, H+, and HCO3-
Where does aldosterone exert its effects?
What is the job of the collecting duct?
To concentrate urine
Where does ADH exert its effects?
The collecting duct to increase permeability to water and concentrating the filtrate
Water permeability in the loop of henle
Descending branch - permeable to water
Ascending - Impermeable to water
Renin secreted by kidney - acts as a catalyst because it's an enzyme
Adrenal cortex stimulated to secrete aldosterone
Where does most mechanical and chemical digestion occur?
How do most fats enter circulation?
First converted to chylomicrons and shipped to lacteal lymph system to be deposted in thoracic duct
Main effect on BP of the RAA?
Increase in systemic blood pressure
By what organ is the pH of the small intestine maintained?
The pancreas releases bicarbonate ions into the small intestine to maintain the pH
Most of the main
stomach cells have extensive rough ER except for the parietal cells, which have
tons of mitochondria to help make the energy to maintain the high proton 
How and where does glucose enter cells via SECONDARY active transport?
Where: Enterocytes & Proximal convoluted tubule
How: Secondary active transport is indirectly harnessing ATP energy to move molecules.
Na+ transporter/ATPase pumps Na+ out of cell against its  gradient. A Glucose/Na+ coupler transporter take both glucose and Na+ into cell down Na+s gradient - the second step does not require ATP since it's facilitated
When insulin is present, how does glucose enter most cells?
Facilitated diffusion except for in neurons
Examples in primary active transport
The transportation of species with the direct harnessing of ATP energy
Ca2+ pump in muscles, Na+/K+ pump, proton pump in gastric cells