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a person who takes refuge in the three jewels
the Buddha, the Dharma, and the Sangha
a perfect teacher, refering to Siddhartha Gautama, or to other perfectly enlightened persons, or "awakened one.'
Also spelled Siddhattha Gotama, 566-486 BC (410 BC = more likely DOD), prince of the Sakyas, became enlightened and began Buddhism.
Also spelled Sakyamuni, the Buddha is sometimes referred to as this title, translates to "the sage of the Sakyas."
reality, the truth that the Buddha teaches.
The spiritual community that has realized the Dharma, or all monks and nuns, all Buddhists, and beings.
Those who wish to formally become Buddhists do so by “taking refuge” in the three jewels - by publicly reciting: “I go to the Buddha, the Dharma, and the Sangha for refuge.”
AKA "Small Vehicle," Predominant today in Myanmar (Burma), Sri Lanka (Ceylon), Cambodia, Laos and Thailand
AKA "Great Vehicle," Predominant today in Nepal, Tibet, Bhutan, China, Korea, Japan, Mongolia, Vietnam.
another name for tantric Buddhism, which we will consider (later) as a subtype of Mahayana. Vajrayana Buddhism has at least a small presence in most Mahayana countries, and is the main type of Mahayana practiced in Tibet, Nepal, and Bhutan.
Those who follow the Mahayana often refer to Theravada and other (earlier) non-Mahayana groups as “Hinayana” (Small Vehicle). It is a derogatory term and no one refers to herself or himself as a follower of Hinayana.
Tripitaka [Three Baskets]
- 1. The Discourses (Sutta Pitaka) or sermons of the Buddha
- 2. The Monastic Rule (Vinaya Pitaka)
- 3. The Scholastic Treatises (Abhidhamma Pitaka)
a scripture which presents (or claims to present) a teaching given by Buddha
contains the rules of monastic discipline
monks or bhikkhu that have attained full enlightenment through learning about enlightenment through someone (the Buddha).
A bell-shaped monument which could be used as a site for offerings and devotion.
suffering is an intristic part of life. Life can be unfulfilling
volitional action or deed
The process of repeated rebirth, or "endless wandering"
The five aggregates
- 1. Matter
- 2. Sensations
- 3. Perceptions
- 4. Mental Formations
- 5. Consciousness
gives rise to all forms of suffering and the continuity of beings.
The Three Marks
The three roots of evil: greed, hatred, and delusion.
Six realms of Rebirth
- 1. Hell (like Christian Purgatory)
- 2. Animals
- 3. Ghosts
- 4. Titans
- 5. Humans
- 6. Gods
- 1. Sense-desires (kamavacara), lowest
- 2. Pure form (rupavacara)
- 3. Formlessness (arupavacara), highest
or puñña, good karma, can be shared with others through "merit transference"
The Four Noble Truths
- 1. The Truth of Suffering (Dukkha)
- 2. The Truth of Arising (Samudaya)
- 3. The Truth of Cessation (Nirodha)
- 4. The Truth of the Path (Magga)
the act of willing, choosing, or resolving
a person who dedicates his or her life to a pursuit of contemplative ideals and practices extreme self-denial or self-mortification for religious reasons.
became emperor of India around 268 BC, extended Mauryan empire, turned to Buddhism after a campaign due to remorse. Helped to establish Buddhism within India and dispatched ambassadors to the courts of rulers in Near East and Macedonia and to South-East Asia.