Musoskeletal System

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Musoskeletal System
2012-06-26 15:26:53
Musoskeletal System Vocabulary

Musoskeletal System Vocabulary
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  1. ankyl/o
  2. arthr/o
  3. brachi/o
  4. cervic/o
  5. chondr/o
    cartilage, cushion bones, connects bone to bone
  6. cost/o
  7. dactyl/o
    finger or toe
  8. fasci/o
    band that surrounds skeletal muscles
  9. kyph/o
  10. lord/o
  11. lumb/o
    lower back
  12. myel/o
    bone marrow or spinal cord
  13. my/o
  14. patell/o
    knee cap
  15. rhabd/o
    rod shaped or skeletal
  16. sarc/o
  17. scoli/o
  18. spondyl/o
  19. stern/o
  20. thorac/o
  21. appendicular skeleton
    bones of shoulder, pelvis, upper and lower extremities
  22. axial skeleton
    bones of skull, vertebral column, chest, and hyoid bone
  23. flat bones
    bones of ribs, shoulder blades, pelvis, and skull
  24. irregular bones
    bones of vertebrae and face
  25. frontal bone
    protects the brain and supports the face
  26. pariental bone
    make up part of the roof and sides of the human skull.
  27. temporal bone
    they are situated on the bases and sides of the skull.
  28. maxilla bone
    protects the face, hold the top half of the teeth in place, and form the floor of the nose.
  29. mandible
    this forms the lower jaw of the human skull. it supports the lower part of the face and holds the bottom half of the teeth in place. The mandible is essential for movement of the mouth.
  30. cervical vertebrae
    it lies in front of the spinal cord, and work with the muscles, joints, ligaments and tendons to provide support, and stabilization to the neck.
  31. thoracic vertebrae
    in the chest region where the ribs attach
  32. lumbar vertebrae
    vertebrae of the lower back
  33. sacrum
    forms the rear wall of the pelvis and strengthens, stabilizes the pelvis
  34. coccyx
    tail bone
  35. masseter/buccinator
    chewing muscles
  36. bicepts brachii
    controls forearm muscles
  37. rectus abdominis
    ab muscles
  38. internal oblique
    side muscle of the abdomen
  39. sartorius
    muscle in thigh that connects to hip
  40. tibialis anterior
    big leg muscle that are necessary for standing and walking 
  41. sternocleidomastoid
    supports head
  42. trapezius 
    neck muscle
  43. deltoid
    injection site on arm, and protects the shoulder joint
  44. pectoralis major
    chest muscle
  45. latissimus dorsi
    back muscle
  46. tricepts brachii
    lets you extend arm
  47. external oblique
    outside muscle near abs
  48. vastus lateralis
    rectus femoris
    vastus medialis
    form quadracepts
  49. gastrocnemius
    big calf muscle
  50. bone marrow
    soft connective tissue within the medullary cavities of bones
  51. red bone marrow
    functions in formation of red, some white blood cells, and platelets.
  52. yellow bone marrow
    gradually replaces red bone marrow, stores fat tissue
  53. articulation
    a joint, where two bones come together
  54. bursa
    cushion between tendons and bones
  55. disk (disc)
    cushion between spine
  56. nucleus pulposus
    central portion of intervertebral disk
  57. ligament
    tissue that connects bone to bone
  58. synovial membrane
    membrane lining of capsule of a joint
  59. synovial fluid
    lubricating fluid secreted by the synovial membrane
  60. muscle
    tissue composed of fibers that can contract, causing movement of an organ
  61. striated skeletal muscle
    voluntary striated muscle attached to the skeleton
  62. smooth muscle
    involuntary muscle found in internal organs
  63. orgin of a muscle
    muscle end attached to the bone that does not move
  64. insertion of a muscle
    muscle end attached to the bone that moves when muscle contracts
  65. tendon
    a band of fibrous tissue that connects muscle to bone
  66. fascia
    a band or connective tissue that covers, supports, and separates muscle
  67. coronal (frontal) plate
    vertical division of the body into front and back portions
  68. sagittal plane
    vertical division of the body into right and left portions
  69. transverse plane
    horizontal division of the body into upper and lower portions
  70. anterior (A) (ventral)
    front of the body
  71. posterior (P) (dorsal)
    back of the body
  72. anterior-posterior (AP)
    from front to back
  73. posterior-anterior (PA)
    from back to front
  74. superior (cephalic)
    situated above another structure, toward the head
  75. inferior (caudal)
    situated below another structure, away from the head
  76. proximal
    toward the beginning or origin of a structure
  77. distal
    away from the beginning or origin of a structure
  78. medial
    toward the middle
  79. lateral
    toward the side
  80. axis
    line that runs through the center of the body or a body part
  81. decubitis
    lying down
  82. prone
    lying face down and flat
  83. recumbent
    lying down
  84. supine
    lying flat on back
  85. flexion
    bending at the joint so that the angle between the bones is decreased
  86. extension
    straightening at the joint so that the angle between the bones is increased
  87. supination (serve soup)
    turing upward of the palm
  88. pronation
    turing downward of the palm
  89. dorsiflexion
    bending of the foot or the toes upward
  90. plantar flexion
    bending the sold of the foot by curling the toes toward the ground
  91. range of motion (ROM)
    total motion possible in a joint
  92. arthralgia
    joint pain
  93. atrophy
    shrinking of a tissue due to malnourishment
  94. exostosis
    a projection arising from a bone that develops from cartilage
  95. flacid
    flabby or relaxed
  96. hypertrophy
    increase of the size of tissue
  97. hypotonia
    reduced muscle tone
  98. myalgia
    muscle pain
  99. ostealgia
    bone pain
  100. rigor or rigidity
  101. spastic
    uncontrolled contractions of skeletal muscles causing stiff and awkward movements
  102. tetany
    continuous muscle contractions
  103. tremor
  104. ankylosis

    stiff joint condition
  105. osteoarthritis (OA)
    arthritis that especially affects weight-bearing joints
  106. rheumatoid arthritis (RA)
    most crippling form of arthritis characterized by a chronic, systemic inflammation most often causing stiff joints and deformity.
  107. gouty arthritis
    arthritis usually in the big toe or thumb
  108. bony necrosis
    dead bone tissue from loss of blood supply
  109. bunion
    swelling of the joint at the base of the big toe caused by inflammation of the bursa
  110. bursitis
    inflammation of a bursa
  111. carpal tunnel syndrome
    pressure on median nerve
  112. fracture
    a broken or cracked bone
  113. closed fracture
    a broken bone with no open wound
  114. compound fracture

    a broken bone with an open wound
  115. simple fracture

    a non displaced fracture involving one fracture line that does not require extensive treatment to repair
  116. complex fracture
    a displaced fracture that requires manipulation or surgery to repair
  117. fracture line
    line made by broken bone
  118. comminuted fracture
    broken in many little places
  119. greenstick fracture
    bending and incomplete break of a bone
  120. herniated disk or disc
    they act as shock absorbers for the spine and keep the spine flexible
  121. myeloma
    bone marrow tumor
  122. myositis
    inflammation of the muscle
  123. myoma
    muscle tumor
  124. muscular dystrophy
    genetically transmitted diseases that weaken muscles
  125. osteoma
    bone tumor
  126. osteomalacia
    disease marked by softening of a bone caused by calcium and vitamin D deficiency
  127. rickets
    osteomalacia in children 
  128. osteomyelitis
    infection of bone and bone marrow causing inflammation
  129. osteoporosis
    condition of decreased bone density and increased porosity, causing bones to become brittle
  130. kyphosis
    curving outward of the spine, creating a humpback
  131. lordosis
    spine curves inward toward the bottom
  132. scoliosis
    when the spine makes an S shape
  133. spondylolisthesis
    forward slipping of a lumbar vertebra
  134. spondylosis
    stiff, immobile condition of vertebrae due to joint degeneration
  135. sprain
    injury to a ligament caused by joint trauma but without joint dislocation or fracture
  136. subluxation
    a partial dislocation
  137. tendinitis
    inflammation of a tendon
  138. electromyogram
    a graphic record of electrical activity of muscles, to diagnose neuromusculoskeletal disorders 
  139. magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
    a nonionizing imaging technique using magnetic fields and radiofrequency waves
  140. nuclear medicine
    ionizing imaging technique using radioactive isotopes
  141. radionuclide organ imaging
    bone scan
    radionuclide imagine of bone tissue to detect tumors
  142. radiography 
    x-ray imaging
  143. arthrogram
    an x-ray of a joint taken after injection of a contrast medium
  144. diskogram
    an x-ray of an intervertebral disk after injection of a contrast medium
  145. dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA)
    an x-ray scan that measures bone mineral density of the spine, diagnose osteoporosis, determine fracture disk, and monitor treatment
  146. computed tomography (CT)
    an x-ray procedure producing a serios of cross-sectional images that are processed by a computer into a 2D or 3D image
  147. arthrocentesis
    puncture for aspiration of a joint
  148. arthrodesis
    binding or fusing of joint surfaces
  149. arthroplasty
    repair or reconstruction of a joint
  150. arthroscopy
    procedure using an arthroscope to examine, diagnose, and repair a joint from within
  151. bone grafting
    transplantation of a piece of bone from one site to another to repair a skeletal defect
  152. bursectomy
    excision of a bursa
  153. myoplasty
    repair of a muscle
  154. open reduction, internal fixation (ORIF) of a fracture
    repair of a fracture by bringing bones back into alignment with plates, screws, and pins
  155. osteoplasty
    repair of bone
  156. closed reduction, external fixation of a fracture
    external manipulation of a fracture to regain alignment with an external device to protect and hold the bone in place while healing 
  157. splinting
    use of a rigid device to immobilize or restrain an injured body part
  158. traction (Tx)
    application of a pulling force to a fractured bone or dislocated joint to maintain proper position during healing
  159. closed reduction, percutaneous fixation of a fracture
    external manipulation of a fracture to regain alignment, followed by insertion of 1+ pins through the skin to maintain position
  160. orthosis
    use of an orthopedic appliance to maintain a bones position or provide limb support
  161. physical therapy (PT)
    treatment to rehabilitate patients disables by illness or injury, involving many different methods
  162. analgesic
    a drug that relieves pain
  163. antipyretic
    a drug that relieves fever
  164. nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID)
    a group of drugs with pain killing, anti-inflammatory, and reducing fever properties commonly used to treat arthritis