Exam 2: Triangles of Neck II

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Exam 2: Triangles of Neck II
2012-06-25 17:08:50
anatomy triangles neck

part 2 review of 6/25 lecture on triangles of neck for exam 2
Show Answers:

  1. How many lobes does the thyroid gland have?
    2 (right and left)
  2. What connects the right and left lobes of the thyroid gland?
  3. What is the pyramidal lobe of the thyroid gland?
    • seen in few people
    • extends superiorly from isthmus near midline of neck
    • remnant of embryonic thyroglossal duct  
  4. Where is the thyroid gland located?
    • anterior to trachea with isthmus lying just inferior to cricoid cartilage on second and third tracheal rings
    • right and left lobes extend superiorly on each side of trachea to level of laryngeal cartilage and inferirly to sixth tracheal ring 
  5. What are the important cell types of the thyroid gland?
    follicular cells and C-cells
  6. The thyroid gland receives blood from which two primary sources?
    • superior thyroid artery
    • inferior thyroid artery
    • thyroid ima artery  
  7. What is the superior thyroid artery a branch of?
    external carotid
  8. What is the inferior thyroid artery a branch of?
    thyrocervical trunk
  9. When present, what is the thyroid ima artery a branch of?
    subclavian artery
  10. What drains blood from thyoid gland? 
    internal jugular via superior and middle thyroid vv. and into brachiocephalic vein via inferior thyroid v.
  11. Which three veins drain the thyroid?
    superior, middle, and inferir thyroid vv.  
  12. What do the follicular cells of the thyroid gland produce?
    thyroid hormone under control of anterior pituitary gland
  13. What is the function of thyroid hormone?
    works in conjunction with growth hormone to stimulate basal cellular metabolism
  14. What do C cells of the thyroid gland produce?
    homone calcitonin
  15. What does calcitonin do?
    reduce blood calcium levels by stimulating osteoblasts to lay down new bone
  16. Typically, how many parathyroid glands are there?
  17. Where are the parahyroid glands?
    posterior surface of thyroid gland and within the thyroid capsule
  18. Where might the lower parathyroids occassionally be found?
    outside of pretracheal fascia (thyroid capsule) or in superior mediastinum
  19. What do the parathyroid glands secrete?
    parathyroid hormone
  20. What is parathyroid hormone?
    an antagonist to calcitonin
  21. What does parathyroid hormone do?
    regulates release of calcium into bloodstream by stimulating bone degradation
  22. Where is the trachea?
    begins at inferior border of cricoid cartilage and extends to level of the sternal angle where it branches into right and left primary bronchi
  23. How many cartilage rings are in the trachea?
  24. What are the shapes of the cartilage rings?
  25. Where is the open portion of the C of the cartilage rings on the trachea?
    posterior surface of trachea
  26. What is the purpose of the open portion of the C of the cartilage rins on the trachea?
    to allow for expansion of esophagus as a bolus of food passes throught the thoracic cavity
  27. What closes the posterior surface of the trachea?
    fibroelastic tissue and smooth muscle
  28. What is the esophagus?
    muscular tube that transports ingested material from oral cavity, through thoracic cavity, to stomach
  29. The superior 1/3 of the esophagus is under what kind of control?
  30. The middle 1/3 of the esophagus is made up of what kind of muscle?
    mixture of skeletal and smooth m.
  31. The inferior 1/3 of the esophagus is made of what kind of muscle?
    smooth muscle controlled by ANS
  32. The smooth muscle of the inferior 1/3 of the esophagus is controlled by which system?
  33. Where is the hyoid bone?
    located at level C3
  34. What is the shape of the hyoid bone?
    U shaped
  35. How is the hyoid bone attached to the rest of the body?
    suspended by muscle that onnect to the mandible, styloid processes, thyroid cartilage, manubrium, and scapula
  36. Does the hyoid bone articulate with other bones?
  37. What are the parts of the hyoid bone?
    body, paired greater horns, paired lesser horns
  38. How many laryngeal cartilages are there?
  39. How is thyroid cartilage formed?
    by two laminae that join anteriorly
  40. What is the laryngeal prominence?
    • Adam's apple
    • prominent bump of the anterior thyroid cartilage 
  41. What is the chief cartilage of the larynx?
    thyroid cartilage
  42. How does the thyroid cartilage attach to the hyoid bone?
    via the thyrohyoid membrane
  43. What is the shape of the cricoid cartilage?
    signet ring
  44. Which is bigger, the cricoid or thyroid cartilage?
    thyroid cartilage
  45. Which is stronger, the cricoid or thyroid cartilage?
  46. What is the most inferior of the laryngeal cartilages?
    cricoid cartilage
  47. How does the cricoid cartilage connect to the thyroid cartilage?
    via cricothyroid membrane
  48. Where can an emergency tracheotomy be done?
    through the cricothyroid membrane
  49. How does the cricoid cartilage connect to the first tracheal ring?
    via cricotracheal ligament
  50. What is the roof of the cervical triangles?
    investing layer of deep cervical fascia
  51. What is the floor of the cervical triangles?
    muscles coveredc by prevertebral layer of deep fascia
  52. Which nerve supplies the carotid sinus and the carotid body?
    CN IX, X
  53. All veins in the cervical region drain to which vein?
    internal jugular
  54. What happens when the pyramidal lobe becomes infected?
    thyroglossal cyst
  55. How many arteries supply the anterior cervical triangle?
    • 2 (sometimes 3)
    • superior, inferior, and thyroid ima 
  56. How many veins supply the anterior cervical triangle?
    • 3
    • superior, middle, and inferior 
  57. What is the function of thyroid hormone?
    • regulate (increase) basil metabolic rate
    • important in body growth and crucia in normal development of nervous system 
  58. What is the function of the parathyroid glands?
    increase blood calcium
  59. Hyperthyroidism
    skinny, jittery, nervous, dry skin
  60. Hypothyroidism
    fat, sluggish, tired