CH:6 Musculoskeletal

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CH:6 Musculoskeletal
2012-06-25 18:36:22

muscular and skeletal systems
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  1. ankyl/o
    crooked or stiff
  2. arthr/o
  3. brachi/o
  4. cervic/o
  5. chondr/o
  6. cost/o
  7. crani/o
  8. dactyl/o
    digit (finger or toe)
  9. fasci/o
    • fascia (band)
    • -fibrous band that surrounds muscle
  10. femor/o
  11. fibr/o
  12. kyph/o
  13. lei/o
  14. lord/o
  15. lumb/o
    loin (lower back)
  16. myel/o
    • bone marrow
    • spinal cord
  17. my/o
  18. oste/o
  19. patell/o
    knee cap
  20. pelv/i
    hip bone or pelvic cavity
  21. radi/o
  22. rhabd/o
    rod shaped or striated (skeletal)
  23. sarc/o
  24. scoli/o
  25. appendicular skeleton
    shouler, pelvis, extremeties
  26. axial skeleton
    skull, vertebral column, chest, hyoid bone
  27. bone
    • oste/o
    • CT composed of osteocytes
  28. bone marrow
    soft CT within the medullary cavities of bones
  29. red bone marrow
    mostly in infants; formation of red blood cells, some white & platelets.  In adults, red bone marrow is found only in flat bones.
  30. yellow bone marrow
    In adults, replaces red bone marrow. Stores FAT.
  31. articulation
    joint, where two bones ceom together
  32. bursa
    fibrous sac between tendons and bones that is lined with synovial membrane that secretes synovial fluid.  A cussion.
  33. disk
    between vertebrae: reduces friction, flat/plate-like structure made of fibrocartilaginous tissue
  34. nucleus pulposus
    the central portion of a vertebral disk, soft & fibrocartilaginous.
  35. ligament
    flexible band of fibrous tissue, connects Bone to Bone
  36. synovial membrane
    membrane lining the capsule of a joint
  37. synovial fluid
    lubricating fluid, secreted by synovial membrane.
  38. muscle
    tissue composed of fibers that contract and move bone.
  39. striated (skeletal) muscle
    voluntary; attached to skeleton
  40. smooth muscle
    involuntary; internal organs
  41. cardiac muscle
    heart muscle
  42. origin of a muscle
    does not move bone when muscle contracts.
  43. insertion of a muscle
    does move bone when muscle contracts.
  44. tendon
    band of fibrous CT, connects Muscle to Bone
  45. fascia
    band/sheet of fibrous CT- convers, supports and separates muscle
  46. coronal (frontal) plate
    divides body into anterior and posterior sections
  47. sagittal plane
    divides body into right and left portions
  48. transverse plane
    horizontal division into upper and lower portions.
  49. axis
    line that runs through the center of the body or a body part
  50. erect
    normal standing position
  51. decubitus
    lying down, in bed
  52. prone
    lying face down and flat
  53. recumbent
    lying down
  54. supine
    horizontal recumbent; lying on the back
  55. flexion
    bending joint so the angle decreases
  56. extension
    straightening joint, angle increases
  57. rotation
    circular movement around an axis
  58. supination
    turning palms upwards
  59. pronation
    turning pals downward/backward
  60. dorsiflextion
    bending foot/toes upward
  61. plantar flexion
    pointing toes/foor towards the ground
  62. range of motion (ROM)
    total motion possible in a joint.
  63. arthralgia
    joint pain
  64. atrophy
    shrinking of tissue (muscle tissue)
  65. flaccid
    flabby, relaxed, defective/absent muscle tone
  66. hypertrophy
    increase in the size of tissue (muscle tissue)
  67. hypotonia
    reduced muscle tone/tension
  68. hypertonia
    increased muscle tone/tension
  69. myalgia
    muscle plain
  70. ostealgia
    bone pain
  71. rigor
    stiffness; stiff muscle
  72. spasm
    involuntary contraction of muscle; drawing in
  73. spastic
    uncontrolled contractions of skeletal muscle - stiff awakward movements
  74. tetany
    prolongued continuous contraction/tension
  75. tremor
    shaking; rhythmic muscular movement
  76. ankylosis
    stiff joint condition
  77. arthritis
    • inflammation of the joints
    • -swelling, redness, warmth, limits in motion
  78. osteoarthritis (OA)
    most common, affects weight bearing joints (knees, hips), erosion of articular cartilage.
  79. rheumatoid arthritis (RA)
    • most crippling
    • chronic, systemic inflammation in joints/synovial membranes (especially the hands and feet).
    • causes ankylosis and deformity
  80. gouty arthritis
    • acute attacks of arthritis usually in a single joint (especially the great toe)
    • caused by hyperuricemia (excessive uric acid in blood)
  81. bony necrosis

    dead bone tissue from loss of blood supply
  82. bunion
    when inflammation of a bursa causes swelling of the joint (great toe)
  83. bursitis
    inflammation of a bursa
  84. carpal tunnel syndrome
    • results from compression of median nerve in carpal tunnel of the wrist
    • pain, numbing, tingling in wrist and fingers
    • weak grip
  85. chondromalacia
    softening of cartilage
  86. fracture (Fx)
    a broken/cracked bone
  87. Compound fracture
    broken bone with an open wound
  88. Simple fracture
    nondisplaced fracture, one fracture line
  89. Complex fracture
    displaced fracture, manipulation & surgery necessary for repair
  90. Comminuted fracture
    broken in many little pieces
  91. herniated disk
    protrusion of intervertebral disk so that the nucleus pulposus protrudes-causing compression on the nerve root.
  92. myeloma
    bone marrow tumor
  93. myositis
    inflammation of the muscle
  94. myoma
    muscle tumor
  95. muscular dystrophy
    • genetically transmitted
    • progressive atrophy of skeletal muscles
    • Duchenne's type is the most common
  96. osteomalacia
    softening of bones, due to calcium and vitamin D deficiency
  97. rickets
    osteomalacia in children
  98. osteomyelitis
    infection causing inflammation of the bone and bone marrow
  99. osteoporosis
    • condition of decreased bone density and increased porosity
    • bones become brittle and fracture easily
  100. kyphosis
    abnormal posterior curvature of the thoracic spine (humpback)
  101. lordosis
    abnormal anterior curvature of the lumbar spine (sway-back condition)
  102. scoliosis
    abnormal lateral curvature of the spine (S-shaped curve)
  103. spondylolisthesis
    forward slipping of a lumbar vertebra
  104. spondylosis
    stiff/immobile vertebrae due to joint degeneration
  105. sprain
    injury to a ligament, joint trauma (no dislocation or fracture)
  106. subluxation
    a partial dislocation
  107. tendonitis
    inflammation of a tendon