Finals study guide summer

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Finals study guide summer
2012-06-25 19:06:28

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  1. What are the accesory organs of digestion?
    • Pancreas
    • Salivary Glands
    • Gall Bladder 
  2. Three functions of digestive system
    • Digestion
    • Absoprtion
    • Elimination 
  3. Whats an esophagram?
    Exam of phartynx and esophagus
  4. Another name of chewing
  5. Whats the at of swalloin?
  6. What closes off nasohparynx?
  7. What prevents food from reentring the mouth?
  8. HOw long is the sophagus?
    25 cm
  9. Where does the esphagus begin?
    cricoid  cartilage
  10. SWhere does the esophagus end?
  11. Where is the twoo indentations of esophagus?
    ARorthi cand left priamry bronchi
  12. Wave like series of cotnraction
  13. opening between esophgagus and stomach
    Cardiac ORifice
  14. Opening of distal stomadc h
    pyloric orifice
  15. Gastric folds are..
  16. Pylorus is the most posterior oa anterior to the abdomina lwall?
    Closest to the posterior abdominal wall
  17. What speeds up chemica ldigestion?
  18. Simple sugars turn to... ?
    Amino acids turn to..?
    Fatty acids turn to...? 
    • Carbs 
    • Protein
    • Lipids 
  19. What are the body habituses?
    • Hypersthenic
    • SThenic
    • Asthenic
    • Hypostehnic 
  20. Explain an esophagram.
  21. Explain Upper GI.
  22. WHy use both thick and thin barium?
    • Thick for coating
    • Thin for pushing the cotnrast through the system 
  23. What is considered negative? 
    NEgaitve - air/gas crystals 
  24. Contraidiciations to water soluble iodineated cotnrast media?
    • Allergies
    • BUN and creaitne levels 
  25. What are the threee routine proejctions for an esophagram? What are the projections and CR?
    • RAO, AP, Lateral
    • T5-T6
  26. Routine for an upper GI in order
    AP, LPO, PA, RAO, Right Lateral
  27. What is the CR for the UGI's?
    • Level L1
    • Hyperstehnic - 2 inches above
    • Hyposthenic - 2 inches down 
  28. Wha obliquity is neccesary for sotmach?
    • RAO - 40-70 degrees.
    • LPO - 30-60 degree obliques

    More obliquei for hyperstehnic 
  29. What radiograph shows duodenum bulb filled with cotrast? Filled with air?
    • RAO
    • LPO 
  30. What shows retorgatstric space?
  31. What is achalasia?
    Caridac spynchiter that dont work
  32. What is esophagreal varices
    Big veins in esophagus
  33. What is GERD?
    Gastero esophgeal reflux disease
  34. What is a bezor?
    Mass of undigesteble material
  35. Emesis?
    THrowing up
  36. Hiatal hernia?
    Stomach protrudes through cardiac sphincter
  37. THree parts of the small intesitne?
    Which is the longest? 
    Duodenum, jejunum and ileum

    Illeum = Longest 
  38. Whats anotehr naem for apendix?
  39. What is the fucnction of the illeosecal valve?
    • Controls flow of ocntents
    • Prevents back flow 
  40. Two parts of colon ahs widest freedom of omotion
    Tranvesrse and sigmoid colon
  41. Whats taeni coli? whats haustra?
    • Teni coli = the muscle
    • Haustra = pouches
  42. What procedure is done when air or mmethylcellulose is injected  in the bowel to distend it and provide doubel contrast study.
  43. What are the most anterior portions of the large intestines?
    Transverse and sigmoid colons
  44. What temperature is said to have an anesthethic effect on the colon and aids to increase the retention of cotnras tmedia?
    Cold temperature
  45. What position is used to relaxt the abdominal muscles so tip insertion cna be performed?
    Sims position
  46. Whats the maximum height for the enema bag?
    should not exceed 24 inches above th etable
  47. What projection is used for aroutine Small bowel series?
    2 inches above illiac crest because barium didn't get down yet.
  48. What is the kvp range for a single contrast study of BE?
    70-75 kvp
  49. What best demosntrates the hepatic flexure?
    RAO and LPO
  50. What position best demonstrates the splenic flexure? How does the CR change?
    • LAO and RPO
    • You go 2 inches higher because the kidney is higher. 
  51. What is the CR for sa lateral rectum or a ventral decubed rectum?
    At the level of ASIS
  52. What flexure demonstrated on a right lateral decubed radiograph?
    Splenix Flecure
  53. Why is a psot eveac film taken?
    to Ensure that everything is emptied out
  54. Why are buttefly views taken?
    To view the rectosigmoid colon
  55. What is the CR for an LPO axial obliquie butterfly position?
    At level ASIS 30-40 degrees cephalic angle. 30-40 degree oblique
  56. What is the CR for a PA axial position?
    30-40 degree caudad at level of ASIS
  57. What is colitis?
    Inflammation of the colon
  58. How much bile does the liver secrete?
    1 quart of bile
  59. Bile is formed in the liver and travels by the ________ ducts to the _________________. Bile is either carried to the ____________________ via the ______________ duct for temporary storage, or poured irectly itno the duodenum by the way of the _________________ duct, which is joined by hte main ______________ duct.
    • Hepatic
    • COmmon hepatic
    • Gall BLadder
    • Cystic Duct
    • Pancreatic Duct
    • Pancreatic Duct 
  60. How long is the cystic duct? What do they contain?
    The cystic duct is 3-4 cm long and they contain spiral valves that prevent collapse of the cystic duct.
  61. What are the three primary functions of the gall bladder.
    • Storage
    • Concentration
    • Contraction 
  62. When there are increasesd levels of _____________ this sphincter relaxes.
  63. What is another name for gallstones?
  64. Which kindye is lower, the left or the right kidney?
  65. Where doe sthe urethers lie?
    Anteriorly to the respective kidney and enters hte bladder posterolaterally.
  66. What does the psoas muscles do to the kidneys?
    Rotates the back 30 degrees.
  67. With a 30 degree RPO, what kidney will be parallel to the film?
    Left kidney.
  68. Each kidney is surroudned by a mass of fatty tissue called...
    Perenal tissue
  69. The kidneys normally lie half way betweeen....
    The xiphoid process and the illiac crest.
  70. Along the medial border of each kidney, a longitudianl fissure is located termed the
  71. The structural and functional unit of the kidney is..
  72. The major calyces unite to form...
    Renal Pelvis
  73. Directly under hte fibrous capsule sorrunding each kidney is the...
  74. The three constricted points along the course of each ureter are...
    • Ureteopelvic junction
    • Pelvic BRim
    • Urethevesicle 
  75. The triangual portion fo thje bladder along the inner posterior surface is termed the ..
  76. Involuntary urination is called..
  77. The act of  voiding is called...
    Mictification or urination
  78. What are contraindications to iodinated  ocntrast?
  79. What strucuttre is best demonstrated on an RPO radiograph during an IVP?
    Left kidney and downside urether
  80. Whatr is the CR for an AP of the bladder during cystography?
    2 inches above symphysis pubis, 10-15 degree caudad
  81. What is the fulcrum?
    Pivot point where you see the object plane
  82. What is the objecdtive plane/focal plane?
    Area your suppsoe to be seeing.
  83. What is expsorue angle?
    How much lienar the tube goes back and forth.
  84. How does blur exposure angle affect blur?
    A greater exposure angle = more thin cut = more blur
  85. How does the complexity in tub etrajectory affect the cut?
    More complex = thinner cut
  86. The farter hthe object plane on an atomic structure, the _____  blurred the image wil lbe.
  87. The ____________ determines the thickness of the cut.
  88. Tomographic angles less tha n10 degrees are referred to as....
  89. As contrast increases, thickness of the cut _________________
  90. What is the nromal blood pressure?
  91. What is hypertension? What is hypotension?
    • Hyeprtension = High blood pressure
    • Hypotension = Low blood pressure 
  92. What is tachyardia? Whats the opposite of it?
    • Tachyardia = rapid pulse
    • Bradycardia = slow pulse 
  93. What is the average pulse rate
  94. What is the normal average oral temperature? Rectal? axillary
    • Normal temperature is 98.2 - 99. 7
    • Axiallry is 1 degree below normal
    • Rectal is 1 degree above normal 
  95. What is hyperhtermia? Pyrexia? Hypothermia?
    • Hyperthermia = above normal temperaure
    • Pyrexia = same as hyperthermia
    • Hypothermia = below normal temperatures 
  96. What is the avarege respiration range?
  97. What is hyperventilation?
    Breathing tooo much.
  98. What gauge needles may be used during venipuncture for IVPS?
    • 19-21 gauge. 
    • 21 gauges are most common 
  99. What is abuttefly set?
    needle with plastic wing
  100. What is an iv catheter?
    put hte needle into the arm but you remvoe the needle leaving a plastic tube for other insertions.
  101. What is extravasation? How do you prevent it? 
    What do you do if you suspect this? 
    When you go through the vein and fluid goes to the surrounding tissue.

    Prevent it by checking for backflow of blood when injecting.

    Pull out immediately if you suspect extravasation 
  102. How hifg hmust the IV  e kept above the level of the vein?
    18-20 inches
  103. When shoudl wrist and hand veins be used?
    If yo ucant get he anticubital vein
  104. What is the most ocmmon vein for venipuncuture?
    median cubital vein.
  105. The torniquet should not be left on for mroe than..
    60 seconds
  106. What is hemoconcentration?
    concenratiton of blood practicles that cause blood clots
  107. What is hematoma? 
  108. What is edema/
  109. What is thrombosis?
  110. What is embolism?
    moving clot
  111. What veins are used for venipuncutre?
    anticubital veins
  112. The toruniequet should be placed ____ to ____ inches above the site.
    2-5 inches
  113. What does AIDETstand for?
    Acknlowedge, Introduce, Duration, Explanation, Thank YOu
  114. Where would you get the most exposure if youre using a C arm?
    You get the most exposure from the tube side
  115. Where should you stand whne theyre doing a lateral for fluroscopy?
    Image intensifer side you get the least exposure
  116. Why are ionic interactions so bad?
    They break apart into charged particles.