Contraidiciations to water soluble iodineated cotnrast media?
BUN and creaitne levels
What are the threee routine proejctions for an esophagram? What are the projections and CR?
RAO, AP, Lateral
Routine for an upper GI in order
AP, LPO, PA, RAO, Right Lateral
What is the CR for the UGI's?
Hyperstehnic - 2 inches above
Hyposthenic - 2 inches down
Wha obliquity is neccesary for sotmach?
RAO - 40-70 degrees.
LPO - 30-60 degree obliques
More obliquei for hyperstehnic
What radiograph shows duodenum bulb filled with cotrast? Filled with air?
What shows retorgatstric space?
What is achalasia?
Caridac spynchiter that dont work
What is esophagreal varices
Big veins in esophagus
What is GERD?
Gastero esophgeal reflux disease
What is a bezor?
Mass of undigesteble material
Stomach protrudes through cardiac sphincter
THree parts of the small intesitne?
Which is the longest?
Duodenum, jejunum and ileum
Illeum = Longest
Whats anotehr naem for apendix?
What is the fucnction of the illeosecal valve?
Controls flow of ocntents
Prevents back flow
Two parts of colon ahs widest freedom of omotion
Tranvesrse and sigmoid colon
Whats taeni coli? whats haustra?
Teni coli = the muscle
Haustra = pouches
What procedure is done when air or mmethylcellulose is injected in the bowel to distend it and provide doubel contrast study.
What are the most anterior portions of the large intestines?
Transverse and sigmoid colons
What temperature is said to have an anesthethic effect on the colon and aids to increase the retention of cotnras tmedia?
What position is used to relaxt the abdominal muscles so tip insertion cna be performed?
Whats the maximum height for the enema bag?
should not exceed 24 inches above th etable
What projection is used for aroutine Small bowel series?
2 inches above illiac crest because barium didn't get down yet.
What is the kvp range for a single contrast study of BE?
What best demosntrates the hepatic flexure?
RAO and LPO
What position best demonstrates the splenic flexure? How does the CR change?
LAO and RPO
You go 2 inches higher because the kidney is higher.
What is the CR for sa lateral rectum or a ventral decubed rectum?
At the level of ASIS
What flexure demonstrated on a right lateral decubed radiograph?
Why is a psot eveac film taken?
to Ensure that everything is emptied out
Why are buttefly views taken?
To view the rectosigmoid colon
What is the CR for an LPO axial obliquie butterfly position?
At level ASIS 30-40 degrees cephalic angle. 30-40 degree oblique
What is the CR for a PA axial position?
30-40 degree caudad at level of ASIS
What is colitis?
Inflammation of the colon
How much bile does the liver secrete?
1 quart of bile
Bile is formed in the liver and travels by the ________ ducts to the _________________. Bile is either carried to the ____________________ via the ______________ duct for temporary storage, or poured irectly itno the duodenum by the way of the _________________ duct, which is joined by hte main ______________ duct.
How long is the cystic duct? What do they contain?
The cystic duct is 3-4 cm long and they contain spiral valves that prevent collapse of the cystic duct.
What are the three primary functions of the gall bladder.
When there are increasesd levels of _____________ this sphincter relaxes.
What is another name for gallstones?
Which kindye is lower, the left or the right kidney?
Where doe sthe urethers lie?
Anteriorly to the respective kidney and enters hte bladder posterolaterally.
What does the psoas muscles do to the kidneys?
Rotates the back 30 degrees.
With a 30 degree RPO, what kidney will be parallel to the film?
Each kidney is surroudned by a mass of fatty tissue called...
The kidneys normally lie half way betweeen....
The xiphoid process and the illiac crest.
Along the medial border of each kidney, a longitudianl fissure is located termed the
The structural and functional unit of the kidney is..
The major calyces unite to form...
Directly under hte fibrous capsule sorrunding each kidney is the...
The three constricted points along the course of each ureter are...
The triangual portion fo thje bladder along the inner posterior surface is termed the ..
Involuntary urination is called..
The act of voiding is called...
Mictification or urination
What are contraindications to iodinated ocntrast?
What strucuttre is best demonstrated on an RPO radiograph during an IVP?
Left kidney and downside urether
Whatr is the CR for an AP of the bladder during cystography?