neuro final

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neuro final
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  1. exocrine glands v. endocrine glands
    • exocrine: sweat glands, release chemicals into ducts, which carry them to targets
    • endocrine: ductless, release chemicals (HORMONES) into circulatory system, to targets
  2. three classes of hormones
    • 1) amino acid derivatives
    • 2) peptides and proteins
    • 3) steroids
  3. what is an example of an amino acid derivative hormone
    epinephrine, which is released from the adrenal medulla and synthesized from tyrosine
  4. peptide = _____ chain , protein= ______chain
    short, long
  5. steroid hormones are synthesized from
    chlesterol, a type of fat molecule
  6. which type of hormone plays a major role in sexual development and behavior, adn what do the other hormones do?
    steroids. other hormones produce effects by binding to receptors in cell membranes. steroid molecules are small and fat soluble so they can penetrate cells, affecting them in a second way by binding to receptors within the cytoplasm or nucleus. they can DIRECTLY influence gene expression
  7. what has the longest and most diverse effect on cellular function?
    steroid hormones
  8. what are the gonads?
    male testes an female ovaries, which produce sperm and ova
  9. what is the function of the gonads
    create sperm and egg cells, produce and release steroid hormones
  10. gonadal hormones (3)
    androgens and estrogens and progestins
  11. ______ is the most common androgen
    testosterone
  12. ______ is the most common estrogen
    estradiol
  13. what is the most common progestin/what is its function
    progesterone, prepares the uterus and breasts for pregnancy
  14. what is the primary function of the adrenal cortex
    regulates glucose and salt levels in the blood, also releases small amounts of all the sex steroids that are released by the gonads
  15. _______ hormones are hormones whose primary function is to influence the release of hormones from other glands
    tropic- most pituitary hormones are tropic
  16. ______ is a pituitary tropic hromone that travels through the circulatroy system to the gonads, where is stimulates the release of gonadal hormones
    gonadotropin
  17. which part of the pituitary gland relases tropic hormones/is the master gland
    anterior pituitary
  18. menstrual cycle
    28 day cycle of fluctuations in gonadal and gonadotropic hormones in women
  19. seasonal variations in light dark cycle in birds and animals trigger breeding related changes in hormone release; if lighting conditions were reversed, breeding seasons were reversed. what conclusions can we reach with this information?
    visual input to the nervous system was controlling the release of tropic hormones from the anterior pituitary
  20. what is the regulator of the anterior pituitary?
    hypothalamus
  21. two major hormones of the posterior pituitary/what do they do
    VASOPRESIN and OXYTOCIN- peptide hormones that are synthesized in the cell bodies of neurons in the paraventricular nuclei and supraptic nuclei of the hypothalamus.
  22. _____ are neurons that release hormones into general circulation
    neurosecretory cells
  23. what does oxytocin / vasopressin do?
    • oxytocin stimulates contractions of the uterus during labor and the ejection of milk during suckling
    • vasopressin is an antidiuretic hormone, facilitates the reabsoprtion of water by the kidneys
  24. what is the vascular network that could carry hormones from the hypothalamus to the anterior pituitary?
    hypothalamopituitary portal system
  25. cutting the ________ of the pituitary stalk disrupts the release of anterior pituitary hormones until the damaged nerves regenerate
    portal veins (veins that connect one capillary network with another)
  26. _____ hormones are the hypothalamic hormones that stimulate the release of an anterior pituitary hormone
    releasing
  27. hypothalamic hormones that inhibit the release of an anterior pituitary hormone
    release-inhibiting factors
  28. thyrotropin releasing hormone triggers.....
    the release of thyrotropin from the anterior pituitary, which stimulates the release of hormones from the thyroid.
  29. what did the isolation of thyrotropin releasing hormone confirm?
    that hypothalamic reeleasing hormones control the release of hormones from the anterior pituitary ,
  30. gonadotropin releasing hormone stimulates the release of _____
    BOTH the anterior pituitarys gonadotropins
  31. two types of the anterior pituitary gonadotropins
    • FSH: follicle stimulating hormone
    • LH: luteinizing hormone
  32. how is hormone release regulated (3)
    1) signals from the nervous system 2) signals from hormones 3) signals from nonhormonal chemicals in the blood
  33. what circulating chemicals can regulate hormone levels?
    glucose, calcium, sodium
  34. ______ hormone release means that there are often large minute to minute fluctuation sin the levels of circulating hormones
    pulsatile
  35. at ____ weeks after concetion, the primordial gonads of XX and XY are identical
    6
  36. each primordial gonad has an outer cortex, which has the potential to develop into a _____, and an internal medulla, which has the potential to develop into a _____
    ovary, testis
  37. Sry gene
    gene of Y chromosome which triggers the synthesis of Sry protein, which causes the medulla of each primordial gonad to grow and develop into a testis. there is NO FEMALE COUNTERPART to teh sry protein
  38. in the absence of _____, the cortical cells of the primordial gonads automatically develop into ovaries
    Sry protein
  39. wolffian system
    capacity to develop into the male reproductive ducts (seminal vesicles/vas deferens)
  40. mullerian system
    capacity to develop into the female ducts (uterus, vagina, fallopian tubes)
  41. in the third month of male fetal development, the testes secrete ______________
    mullerian-inhbiting substance; mullerian system degenerates and testes descend into the scrotum
  42. ovariectomy v. orchidectomy v. gonadectomy
    • removal of the ovaries
    • removal of the testes
    • removal of gonads
  43. in contrast to the internal reproductive organs (gonads and ducts), the external reproductive organs (genitals)....
    develop from the same precursor, called a bipotential precursor
  44. in the second month of pregnancy, the bipotential precursor of the external reproductive organs consists of four parts:
    glans (becomes head of penis/clitoris), urethral folds, lateral bodies, labioscrotal swellings. the development of these are controlled by the presence of absence of testosterone
  45. gonadectomizing neonatal rats of either sex caused them to develop into adults with the female cyclic pattern of gonadotropin release. in contrast, transplantation of testes into female rats caused them to develop into adults with the steady male pattern
    the female cyclic pattern of gonadotropin release develops unless the preprogrammed female cycclicity is overriden by testosterone
  46. a slight change to the testosterone molecle that occurs nder the influence of the enzyme ______ converts testosterone to estradiol
    aromatase
  47. aromatization hypothesis
    perinatal testosterone does not directly masculinize the brain, brain is masculinized by estradiol that has been aromatized from perinatal testosterone
  48. what is the evidence for the idea that estradiol masculinized the brain ? (this idea is counterintuitive)
    1) findings demonstrating the masculinizing efects on the brain of early estradiol injections 2) findings showing that masculinization of the brain does not occur in response to testosterone that is administered with agents that block aromatization
  49. how do genetic females of species whose brains are masculinized by estradiol keep from being masculinized by their mothers estradiol, which circulates through fetal blood supply?
    alpha fetoprtein. deactivates circulating estradiol by binding to it. testosterone is immune to alpha feto protein, so it can travel from the testes to the brain where it is converted to estradiol. the estradiol is not broken down in the brain because alpha fetoprotein does not penetrate the blood brain barrier
  50. in humans, _____ does not appear to be necessary for testosterone to have masculinizing effects on the brain
    aromatization
  51. how are female fetuses protected from the masculinizing effects of the mothers estrogens?
    placental barrier.
  52. the perinatal injection of testosterone __________ a genetic females adult copulatory behavior
    masculinzes and defeminizes
  53. the lack of exposure of male rats to testosterone both ______________ their copulatory behavior as adults
    feminizes and demasculinizes
  54. proceptive behaviors
    solicitation behaviors
  55. secondary sex characteristics
    features other than reproductive organs that distinguish sexually mature men and women
  56. growth hormone
    the only anterior pituitary hormone that does not have a gland as its primary target. increases during puberty, directly acts on bone and muscle tissue to produce a growth spurt
  57. increases in the release of gonadotropic hormone and ______________ hormone cause the gonads and adrenal cortex to increase their gonadal and adrenal hormones, which initiates the maturation of the genitals and the developent of secondary sex characteristics
    adrenocorticotropic
  58. androstenedione ?
    released by adrenal cortex and is normally responsile for the growth of pubic and underarm hair in females; androgens cannot be the male hormones when they also influence females
  59. six weeks after conception, the Sry gene of the Y chromosome of the human male triggers the production of _____
    Sry protein
  60. in the absence of the sry protein, the cortical cells of the primordial gonads develop into
    ovaries
  61. in the third month of male fetal development, the testes secrete testosterone and ______ substance
    mullerian-inhibiting
  62. the hormonal factor that triggers the development of the human mullerian system is the lack of ______ around the third month of fetal development
    androgens
  63. the scrotum and the ____ develop from teh same bipotential precursor
    labia major
  64. the female pattern of cyclic ____ releas efrom the anterior pituitary develops in adulthood unless androgens are present in the body during th perinatal period
    gonadotropin
  65. it has been hypothesized that perinatal testosterone must first be changed to estradiol before it can masculinize the male rat brain. this is called the _____ hypothesis
    androstenedione
  66. ______ is normally responsible for pubic and axillary hair growth in human females during puberty
    androstenedione
  67. girls usually begin puberty ____ boys
    before
  68. the simplistic, seductive, but incorrect assumption that sexual differentiation occurs becasue male and female sex hormones trigger programs of development that are parallel but opposite to one another has been termed the
    mamawawa
  69. androgenic insensitivy syndrome
    a mutation to the androgen receptor gen rendered her androgen receptors unresponsive; external genitals, brain, and behavior were female, but internal female reproductive ducts did not develop
  70. adrenogenital syndrome
    caused by congenital adrenal hyperplasia- a deficiency in the release of cortisol from the adrenal cortex, which results in compensatory adrenal hyperactivity and the excessive release of androgens. this does not really effect males but females are usually born with an enlarged clioris and fused labia; which can be corrected
  71. sex drive and testosterone levels are _______ in healthy men
    not correlated
  72. estrus
    a period of 12-18 hours during which the emale is fertile, receptive, proceptive, and sexually attractive
  73. close relationship between cycle of hormone releaes and teh
    estrous cycle
  74. women are the only female mammals that are motivated to copulate during periods of nonfertility
    true fact
  75. evidence that the sex drive of women is under the control of ______ v. estrogens
    androgens
  76. anabolic steroids
    growth promoting effects;
  77. side effects of anabolic steroids
    • negative feedback--- reduceds gonadotropin and reduces testicular activity and sterility, breast growth
    • in women- amenorrhea, sterility, hirsuitism, growth of clitoris, blandess, deepening of voice, etc.
  78. ______ could reduce the brain damage associated with stroke and various neurodegenerative disorders
    estradiol (reduces inflammation, encourage axonal regeneration, promote synaptogenesis, increase adult neurogenesis)
  79. the properties of ____ may account for women's greater longevity and their lower incidence of several neuropsychological disorders
    estradiol
  80. genetic male, sparse pubic hair, short vagina
    androgenic insensitivity syndrome
  81. congenital adrenal hyperplasia, little effect on males, elevated androgen levels
    adrenogenital syndrome
  82. david reimer, john money, destruction of penis
    ablatio penis
  83. castrated males, gonadectomized males
    orchidectomized
  84. castrated females, gonadectomized females
    ovariectomized
  85. cant acheive erection, castrated
    impotent
  86. anabolic steroids, breasts on men
    gynecomastia
  87. anabolic steroids, cessation of menstruation
    amenorrhea
  88. anabolic steroids, excessive body hair
    hirsuitism
  89. reduction of oxygen to brain, causes brain damage that is reduced by estradiol
    cerebral hypoxia
  90. 3 reasons why research on neural mechanisms of sexual behavior focused only on hypothalamic circuits
    • 1) researchers have focused on relatively simple, controllable copulatory behaviors of animals, which are controlled by hypothalamus
    • 2) hypothalamus controls gonadotropin release, obvious place to look for sexually dimorphic structures and circuits
    • 3) early studies confirmed that hypothalmus does play a major role in sexual behavior
  91. a nucleus in the _______ of the rat hypothalamus is several times larger in males
    medial preoptic area
  92. another name for the nucleus in the medial preoptic area of the hypothalamus
    sexually dimorphic nucleus
  93. growth of the male sexually dimorphic nuclei is normally triggered by _______, which has been aromatized from testosterone
    estradiol
  94. what part of the hypothalamus plays a key role in male sexual behavior?
    medial preoptic area
  95. medial preoptic area appears to control male sexual behavior via a tract that projects to an area of the midbrain called the
    lateral tegmental field
  96. what part of the hypothalamus contains circuits that are critical for female sexual behavior
    ventromedial nucleus
  97. an injection of _____ brings an ovariectomized female rat into estrus
    progestorne
  98. estradiol primes the nervous system so progesterone can exert its effect; how is this priming effect mediated?
    by an increase in the number of progesterone receptors that occurs in the VMN and surrounding area following an estradiol injection
  99. destruction of which tract eliminates female sexual behavior?
    periaqueductal gray
  100. sexual orientation and genes
    twin studies: 52 % of MZ twin brothers and 22 % of DZ twin brothers were homosexual
  101. perinatal estrogen exposure does encourage homosexuality and bisexuality in women
    YUP
  102. fraternal birth order effect
    finding that the probability of a man's being homosexual increases as a function of the number of older brothers he has; large effect; probability increases by 33 % for every older brother he has- 15% of gay men can attribute homosexuality to this
  103. maternal immune hypothesis
    explains fraternal birth order effect mothers become more immune to some masculinizing hormone in male fetuses, which deactivates masculinizing hormone in younger brothers
  104. transsexualism
  105. intracranial self stimulation
    rats humans etc will administer brief bursts of elecrical stimulation to site in the brain, pleasure centers
  106. mesotelencephalic dopamine system
    dopaminergic neurons projecting from mesencephalon into various regions of telencephalon. neurons composing this system have cell bodies in two midbrain nuclei- substantia nigra and ventraltegmental area
  107. nucleus accumbens
    nucleus of ventral striatum
  108. mesocorticolimbic pathway of the mesotelencephalic dopamine system plays a rle in intracranial self stimulation
    • 1) many of brian sits at which self stimulation occurs are part of the mesotelencephalic dopamine system, or project irectly to the mesotencephalic dopamine system
    • 2) cerebral dialysis studies show that ISS is associated with an increase in dopamine release in the mesocorticolimbic pathway
    • 3) dopamine agonists tend to increase intracranial s.s., and antagonists tend to decrease it
    • 4) legions of the mesocorticolimbic pathway disrupt intracranial self stimulation
  109. drug self administration paradigm
    rats press a level to inject drugs into themselves, learn to self administer,
  110. conditioned place preference paradigm
    rats receive a drug in one compartment of a two compartment box, then rats usually prefer the drug compartment
  111. findings that focus on nucleus accumbens
    • 1) lab animals self administer microinjections of addictive drugs directly into nucleus accumbens
    • 2) microinjections of addictive drugs into NA produced a conditioned place preference for the compartment in which they were administered
    • 3) lesions to NA or ventral tegmental area blocked the self administration of drugs
    • 4) self administered of addictive drugs were associated with elevated dopamine
  112. dopamine transporters
    • molecules in the presynaptic memrane of dopainergic neurons that attract dopamine molecules int he synaptic cleft and deposit them back inside the neuron.
    • brain imaging studies show that dopamine function is diminshed in human addicts. when addicts are exposed to their drug or to stimuli associated with their drug, NA and other parts of the dopamine pathway become hyperactive
  113. is dopamine release related to the experience of reward or the expectation of reward?
    • neutral stimuli can trigger dopamine relase in NA
    • stimuli that signal rewards can develop rewarding properties of their own
    • dopaminergic neurons with cell bodies in ventral tegmental area fire at a rate related to the value of the reward. expected reward delivered= no change in firing. greater than expected reward=increased firing. less than expected=firing decreased
    • dopamine levels reflect reward value, but not in a straightforward level
  114. initial drug taing
    • nucleus accumbens
    • mesocorticolimbic pathway
    • prefrontal lobes: decision to take a drug
    • hippocampus: information about previous relevant experiences
    • amygdala: coordinate positive or negative emotional reactiosn
  115. 2) craving and compulsive drug taking
    • change in how striatum reacts to drugs and drug associated cues
    • spreads from nucleus accumbens to dorsal striatum
    • prefrontal corte x
  116. 3) relapse
    • priming doses of the drug
    • drug associated cues
    • stress

    • prefrontal cortex: primin ginduced relapse
    • amygdala: conditional cue-induced relapse
    • hypothalamus: stress induced relaspe
  117. schizophrenia
    • 1 percent
    • 1) delusions
    • 2) inappropriate affect
    • 3) hallucinations
    • 4) incoherent thought
    • 5) odd behavior
  118. chlopromazine
    antischizophrenic drug.
  119. reserprine
    active ingredient of snakeroot plant, antischizophrenic
  120. effects of antischizoprhrenic drugs
    • -effect manifests only after two or three weeks
    • onset is associated with motor effects similar to parkinsons disease
    • acting through same parkinsons pathway
  121. dopamine theory of schizophrenia
    • schizophrenia is caused by too much dopamine, and anti drugs exert effecs by decreasing dopamine levels
    • reserpine depletes dopamine by breaking down synapses
    • drugs like amphetamine and cocaine can trigger schizophrenic episods, increase the levels of dopamine and monamines in the brain
    • chlopromazine and reserpine antagonize transmission at dopamine synapses but in different ways: chlorpromazine binds to dopamine receptors at dopamine synapses, reserpine: depletes the brain of dopamine
  122. why is dopaminergic activity reduced while extracellular levels of dopamine stay the same and extracellular metabolites increase?
    rather than high dopamine levels, the main factor in schizophrenia i shigh levels of activity at dopamine receptors
  123. chlorpromazine and other effective antischizophrnic drugs have a ____ affinity for dopamine receptors
    high
  124. haloperiodol
    potent antizschizophrenic drugs with a relatively low affinity for dpamine receptors--- puzzle solved because dopamine binds to more than one receptor subtype.
  125. phenothiazines v. butyrophenones
    • phenothiazines: bind effectiely to D1 and D2 receptors
    • butyrophenones: bnd effectiely to D2 receptors bur not D1

    selective bindings of butyrophenones == schizophrenia is caused by hyperactivity specifically at D2 receptors rather than all dopamine receptors
  126. neuroleptics
    antischizophrenic drugs
  127. clozapine
    • first atypical neuroleptic which has an affinity for d1 and d4 but not d2
    • recen tresearch implicates other neurotransmitters like glutamate and serotonin
    • clozapine is effectie in treating schizos who have not responded to typical neuroleptics and does not produce parkinsonian side effects
    • produces a severe blood disorder in some patients who use it
    • led to qualification of the d2 theory of schizophrenia because atypicals bind weakly to d2, and
  128. it takes several weeks of neuroleptic therapy to alleviate schizophrenic syptoms
    time lag indicates that the blockage of d2 receptors is not the specific mechanism of the neuroleptics therapeutic effect; triggers some slo w developing compensatory change in the brain
  129. schizophrenia is associated with widespread brain damage
    • enlarged ventricles
    • reduced volume in 50 brain areas
    • reductions in the number of neurons in many areas,
    • 1) little evidence of specific structural damage to dopaminergic circuits
    • 2) dopamine theory provides no rationale for the diffuse pattern of brain damage

    do brains of schizophrenics develop abnormally, or do they develop normally and then suffer some damage
  130. seperate analysis of brains before and after schizophrnia
    • 1) substantial damage already exists in first episode schizophrenics
    • 2) devleopment of damge to diff areas of the brain does not follow the same time course in all patients
  131. positive v. negative symptoms of schizophrenia
    • positive: respond better to neuroleptics
    • incoherence, hallucinations, delusions
    • caused by increased neural activity
    • negative: lack of affect, cognitive deficits, proverty of speech
    • caused by brain damage
  132. reactive v. endogenous depression
    • reactive: in response to a negative experience
    • endogenous: no apparent cause

    bipolar/unipolar depression
  133. 4 classes of affective disorder drugs
    • 1) monoamine oxidase inhibtors
    • 2)tricyclic antidepressants
    • 3) lithium
    • 4) selective monoamine reputake inhibitors
  134. iproniazid
    • first antidepressant drug, originally developed for TB
    • monoamine agonist
    • increases levels of norepinephrine and serotinin by inhibiting the activity of monamine oxidase, which breaks down monoamine neurotransmiters in the cytoplasm
  135. MAO inhibitors
    • monoamine oxidase inhibitors for affective disorders
    • side effects: cheese effect
    • foods which contain tyramine run the reisk of strokes caused by surges in blood pressure
  136. cheese effect
    side effect of MAO inhibitorss; when people who take MAO i's and consume tyramine rich food run the risk of strokes caused by surges in bloodpressure
  137. tricyclic antidepressants
    • three rings of atoms
    • imipramine
    • block reuptake of serotonin and norepinephrine, increasing their levels in the brain
  138. imipramine
    first tricyclic antidepressant
  139. lithium
    • blocks mania
    • mood stabilizer, blocks rapid transition between depression and mania
  140. selective monoamine reuptake inhibitors
    • SSRIS, exert agonistic effects by blocking reuptake of serotonin from synapses
    • prozac
    • few side effects
    • effective against a wide range of psychological disorders
  141. effectiveness of drugs in treatment of affective disorders?
    50% improved

    • only 25% actually helped by antidepressent
    • when depression is a component of bipoalr, it is more resistant to antidepressants
  142. monoamine theory of depression
    depression is associated with underactivity at serotonergic and noradreneric synapses, based on the fact that drugs are all agonists of serotonin, norepinephrine , or both
  143. up-regulation
    • when an insufficient amount of a NT is released at a synapse, compensatory increases in the number of receptors for that neurotransmitter
    • weak support
  144. diathesis stress model of depression
    depressed people release more stress hormones
  145. antidepressant effect of sleep deprivation and excercise
    • more than 50% of depressed patients display dramatic improvements after one night of sleep depression
    • excercise increases adult neurogenesis in hippocampus
  146. anxiety
    five classes
    • most prevalent of any disorder- 17%
    • 1) generalized anxiety disorders
    • 2) phobic a
    • 3) panic disorders
    • 4) OCD
    • 5) posttraumatic stress disorder
    • agoraphobia
  147. three categories of drugs effective against anxiety disorders
    • 1) benzodiazepines
    • -chlordiazepoxide/diazepam
    • -most widely prescribed
    • -side effects
    • -highly addictive
    • 2) serotonin agonists
    • 3) antidepressants
    • -comorbitdity
  148. anxiolytics
    anti anxiety drugs, often effective against depression
  149. animal models of anxiety
    • -elevated plus maze test
    • -defensive burying test
    • -risk assessment test
  150. neural basis of anxiety disorders
    -possible role in anxiety disorders of deficits in both GABAergic and serotonergic transmission
  151. tourette syndrome
    • disoder of tics
    • begins in early life
    • genetic component
  152. what hormones bind to receptors like transmitters?
    • amino acid derivatives
    • peptide/proteins
  153. what hormones enter cells an influence gene expression?
    steroids
  154. two functions of gonadal organs?
    produce sperm cells and ova
  155. anterior pituitary releases two gonadotropins:
    • follicle stimulating hormone
    • luteinizing hormone

    • peptides
    • released by gonadotropinreleasing hormone
  156. ______ in circulation signals the hypothalamus to signal the pituitary gland to release luteinizing hormone
    estradiol
  157. luteinizing hormone "luteinizes" a follicle, which releases more _______ and ________; develop the uterine lining
    estradiol, progresterone
  158. correlational studies of women's behaviors across menstrual phases
    women in "follicular phase are "
    more fashionable, concerned w/appearance, sexy
  159. in rodents, estrogen triggers _____ via spinal cord reflex
    lordosis (intromission faciliatating arched back posture signaling female rodent receptivity)
  160. progesterone may increase ______ activity
    GABA
  161. estrogen facilitates 5-HT and other ________
    monoamines
  162. two effects of hormones in the nervous system
    • 1) activating
    • 2) organizing
  163. oxytocin in females
    • -milk ejection, uterine contractions
    • -maternal behavior
    • -stimulated by nursing
    • -facilitative, but not necessary for, maternal behavior
  164. heterosexual women and homosexual men respond to the same pheremone AND in similar ways
    heterosxual men and homosexual women respond to a different one EST in similar ways

    what is AND and EST
    derived from androgen and estrogen
  165. what contains the sexually dimorphic nucleus
    medial preoptic area
  166. the sexually dimorphic nucleus in rodents is
    -largest?
    -moderate?
    -smallest?
    • largest in males interested in females
    • moderate in gay males
    • smallest in females
  167. how do female brans stay female exposed to mothers estradiol?
  168. congenital adrenal hyperplasia
  169. functional tolerance
    • drug tolerance that results from changes that reduce the reactivity of the sites of action to the drug
    • tolerance to psychoactive drugs
  170. common mechanisms of functional tolerance
    • -reduce number of receptors
    • -decrease efficiency with which drug binds to existing receptors
    • -diminish impact of receptor binding on the activity of the cell
  171. contingent drug tolerance
    example
    tolerance to a drug's certain efect requires that it actually exerts that effect

    • premise: alcohol decreases convulsions. rats can develop tolerance to anticonvulsant effect
    • hypothesis: alcohol given before, not after, convulsions iwll create an anticonvulsion effect tolerance
  172. what is the problem with glutamate agonists? even though glutamate agonists in the vmPFC prevent craving and relapse in animals?
    essential for learning
  173. lower resting vmPFC predicts
    greater cocaine use
  174. alcoholics v. social drinkers
    exposure to alcohol smell and taste=activation of nucleus accumbens, ACC< VTA, insula
  175. risk factors for acddiction
    • 1) hypofrontality
    • 2) genes v. environment
    • 3)adolescent drug use
    • 4) stressful experiences
  176. nicotine effect
    • immediate: CA enters, facilitates NT release
    • increases GABA in lateral hypothalamus
    • desensitation of receptors over repeated exposure
  177. nicotine addiction
    • highly addictive (70%)
    • high relapse (20% can quit)
  178. where are nicotinic receptors found?
    ventral tegmental area
  179. what is the negative reinforcement with smoking
    smokers are more stressed between doses
  180. smoking during pregnancy
    • 25% pregnant women smoke
    • readily crosses placenta
    • nicotinic Acch receptors present by prenatal week 8
    • long term effects on brain function
    • underactivity in dopamine and norepinephrine neurons
  181. alcohol
    • GABA agonist
    • NMDA antagonist
    • memory disruption
    • endogenous opioid agonist
    • painilling effect
    • stimulates VTA--NA pathway
  182. fetal alcohol syndrome
    • .3% of live births
    • brain damage, retardation, poor coordination, physical deformity
    • no time or amount that is safe
  183. adolescent alcohol use
    • half 8th graders, 3/4 high schoolers use alcohol
    • reward and prefrontal inhibiton pathways still developing
  184. james lange theory of emotion
    emotion inducing sensory stimuli are received and interpreted by the cortex, which triggers changes in the visceral organs via the autonomic nervou ssystem and in the skeletal muscles via the somatic nervous system. autonomic activity and behavior triggered by the emotional event produce the feelings of emotions, not vice versa
  185. cannon bard theory
    emotional stimuli have two independent excitatory effects: exicte feelings of emotion in the brain and the expression of emotionin the autonomic and somatic nervous system. views emotional experience and emotional expression as parallel processes that have no direct causal link
  186. difference between JL and CB theories
    different predictions about the role of feedback from autonomic and somatic ns activity

    • JL: emotional experience depends entirely on feedback fr
    • CB: emotional experience is independent of such feedback
  187. kluver bucy syndrome
    • pattern of behavior in monkeys whose anterior temporal lobes were removed
    • -consumption of almost anything
    • -inappropriate sexual behavior
    • -tendency to repeatedly inestigate familiar objects
    • -lack of fear
    • -tendency to investigate objects w/ mouth
    • -damage to the amygdala
    • -
  188. polygraphy
    • method of interrogation employing autonomic nervou ssytem indexes of emotion to infer the truth of the subjects responses
    • control question technique
    • success rate in mock crime studies is 80%
    • detects EMOTIONS not lies
  189. ekmans study of facial expressions
    • universality of facial expressions
    • primary facial expressions: suprise, anger, sadness, disgust, fear, happiness
    • facial feedback hypothesis:
    • voluntary control of facial expression: microexpressions
  190. main features of social aggression?
    unprovoked aggressive behavior that is directed at a conspecific for the purpose of establishing, altering, or maintaining a social hierarchy. in mammals, primarily among males.
  191. aggression and testosterone
    • testosterone increases social aggression in the males of many species; aggression is largely abolished by castration
    • in some species, castration has no effect on social aggression. in others, it reduces aggression during breeding season but not other times
    • relation between aggression and testosterone levels is difficult because aggression can itself increase testosterone
  192. two pathways from medial geniculate nucleus to amygdala
    • 1) direct one
    • 2) indirect one that projects via the auditory cortex

    • both mediate fear conditioning to simple sounds
    • only cortical route is capable of medaiting fear conditioning to complex sounds
  193. which brain structure is implicated in contextual fear conditioning?
    hippocampus
  194. amygdala is composed of many ...
    nuclsi.
  195. what part of the amygdala is critically involved in the aquisition, storage, and expression of conditioned fear
    lateral nucleus of the amygdala
  196. what acts on the lateral nucleus of the amygdala to suppress conditioned fear
    prefrontal lobe
  197. what interacts with the amygdala to mediate learning about the context of fear related events
    hippocampus
  198. the theory that subjective experience of emotion is triggered by ANS responses is called the
    james-lange theory
  199. pattern of aggressive responses observed in decorticate animals is called
    sham rage
  200. between the amygdala and the fornix in the limbic ring is the
    hippocampus
  201. a duchenne smile, but not a false smile, involves contraction of the
    orbicularis oculi
  202. aggression directed byt he alpha male of a colony at a male intruder is called
    social aggression
  203. the usual target site of rat defensive attacks is the
    face of the attacking rat
  204. testosterone increases _____ aggression in rats
    social
  205. in humans, most violent outbursts that are labeled as aggression are more appropriately viewed as ______ attacks
    defenisve
  206. the historic case study of little albert was the first study of fear
    conditioning
  207. in the typical auditory fear conditning experiment, the _____ is a tone
    conditional stimulus
  208. auditory fear conditioning to simple tones depends on a pathway from the _____ to the amygdala
    medial geniculate nucleus
  209. unlike auditory fear conditioning to simple tones, fear conditoining to complex sounds involves the
    auditory cortex
  210. the prefrontal lobe is thought to act on the ____ of the amygdala to inhibit conidionted fear
    lateral nucleus
  211. stress response dual nature
    • short term adaptive changes that help animal respond to sressor
    • long term: maladaptive changes
  212. the stress response is due to the activation of the
    anterior pituitary adrenal cortex system
  213. stressors acting on neural circuits stimulate the release of ______ hormone from the anterior pituitary
    adrenocorticotropic hormone
  214. adrenocorticotrpic hormone triggers the releae of _______ from the _______, which produce the stress response
    glucocorticoids, adrenal cortex
  215. what is the most common physiological measure of stress
    the level of circulating glucocorticoids
  216. stress also activates the symapthetic nervous system, but increasing epinephrine and norepinephrine released from the ________
    adrenal medulla
  217. brief stressors produce an increase in blood levels of ________, peptide hormones which are released by many cells and participate in many responses, casuing inflammation and fever
    cytokines
  218. subordination stress
    when conspecific threat becomes an enduring feature of daily life
  219. psychoneuroimmunology
    study of interactions among psychological factors, nervous system, and immune system
  220. toll like receptors
    receptors that are synthesized by many cells of the innate immune system for the purpose of detecting generic pathogens
  221. phagocytes
    cells, like macrophages and microglia, that destroy and ingest pathogens
  222. phagocytosis
    destruction and ingestion of foreign matter
  223. cytokines activate the Adaptive immune system cells, called
    lymphocytes
  224. two general types of lymphocytes
    t and B
  225. cell mediated immunity is directed by ____ cells, antibody mediated immmunity is directed by ___ cells
    T/B
  226. T-reg cells combat
    autoimmune disorders
  227. improvements in immune function following acute stress occured in the _____ immune system, while chronic stressors adversely affected the ____ immune system
    innate/adaptive
  228. distress v. eustress
    • distress: stress that reduces health
    • eustress: improves health
  229. why is the hippocampus susceptible to stress induced effects?
    the dense population of glucocorticoid receptors in the hippocampus
  230. how does stress impact the hippocampus
    • -reduces dendritic branching
    • -reduces adult neurogenesis
    • -modify structure of synapses
    • -reduce performance of hippocampus dependent tasks

    mediated by elevated glucocorticoid levels
  231. corticosterone
    major glucocorticoid, effects of stress induce this
  232. reduction of neurogenesis by stress is greater in
    males; because estradiol has neuroprotective effects that testosterone lacks
  233. glucocorticoids are released fromt he _____ as part of the stress response
    adrenal cortex
  234. stressors increase the release of epinephrine and norepinephrine from the
    adrenal medulla
  235. brief stressors trigger the release of ____, which participate in the bodys inflammatory responsses
    cytokines
  236. when threats from conspecifics become and enduring feature of daily life, the result is
    subordination stress
  237. gastric ulcers have recently been shown to be caused by H pylori, but it still seems likely that ______ is a causal factor in their development
    stress
  238. the study of the interactions among psychological factors, the NS, and the immune system is called
    psychoneuroimmuniology
  239. there are two immune systems:
    adaptive, innate
  240. disease causing agents
    pathogens
  241. lymphocytes participate in two immune reactions:
    • 1) cell mediated
    • 2) antibody mediated
  242. t cells and b cells are involved in cell mediated and _______ immune reactions, respectively
    antibody mediated
  243. rat pups groomed intensely display decreased ______ release from the adrenal cortex in response to stressors in adulthood
    glucocorticoid
  244. corticosterone is a
    glucocorticoid
  245. in lab animals, stress has been shown to reduce adult neurogenesis in the
    hippocampus

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