Endocrine System

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Endocrine System
2012-06-25 23:57:06
Endocrine System Glands

Endocrine System (Glands)
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  1. What are the glands found in the human endocrine system?
    Adreanal, Carotid, Parathyroid, Pituitary, Thymus and Thyroid.
  2. Adreanal Glands
    Ductless, pyramid-shaped glands are situated near the top on the superior end of each kidney. There are two structural parts of each adrenal gland. The inner portion is called the medulla and the outer portion is the cortex. Each structure performs a separate function. The medulla secretes epinephrine and norepinephrine. The cortex secretes several steroids(eg, glucocorticoids, mineral corticoids, and sdrenal estrogens and androgens)
  3. Carotid Body
    A structure made of epithelial-like cells located on each side of the body at the bifurcation(division) of the common carotid artery. This has a vascular/sinusoidal bed and large network of nerve fibers from the glossopharyngeal nerve. This configuration works together to measure concentration of oxygen, carbon dioxide, and free hydrogen atoms in blood. This chemoreceptor organ regulates respiration and pH balance. Although not a true endocrine structure, it is made of both glandular and nonglandular cells. Procedures on this structure are included in the endocrine family of CPT codes.
  4. Parathyroid Gland
    Small round bodies located on the posterior side of the thyroid gland and imbedded in the connective tissue surrounding it. The number of these bodies varies, but usually there are four. These glands regulate calcium and phosphorus metabolism
  5. Pituitary Gland
    Also called the hypophysis cerebri - This single (unpaired) gland has two separate parts located in an area of the brain just under the hypothalamus. One portion is called the posterior pituitary or neurohypophysis. The posterior pituitary secretes oxytocin, a hormone responsible for uterine contractions and "let down" reflex of milk in response to a baby's suckling; and Vasopressin, an antidiurtic. The anterior pituitary manufactures adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH), thyroid stimulating hormone(TSH), follicle stimulating hormone(FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), growth hormone(somatotrophin or GH), melanocyte timulating hormone(MSH), and prolactin(PRL).
  6. Thymus Gland
    Comosed of lymphoid tissue and located in the medicastinum of the chest. The precise functions of this gland are not known entirely. This gland helps regulate humoral (circulating defenses versus cellular defenses) immune functions. The gland does much of its work in early childhood, and is larges shortley after birth. by puberty, it is small and may be replaced by fat.
  7. Thyroid Gland
    Regulates metabolism and serum calcium levels through the secretion of thyroid hormone and calcitonin, respectively. This bi-lobed, ductless gland is located in the neck just below the thyroid cartilage of the trachea. The two lobes sit on either side of the tachea and are joined by small band of tissue called the isthmus.