Gr. 9 Science

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Gr. 9 Science
2012-06-26 10:03:58

Cell Reproduction
Show Answers:

  1. Define nucleus.
    Contains the genetic material called chromosomes.
  2. Define mitochondria.
    Transforms nutrients into useful energy for the cell. 
  3. Define cell membrane.
    Separates the outside of the cell from its surroundings.
  4. Define nuclear membrane.
    Encloses the cell's DNA. 
  5. Define Golgi bodies.
    Packages and secretes useful material to the outside of the cell.
  6. Define ribosomes.
    Makes protein. 
  7. Define endoplasmic reticulum.
    Transports material moving through the cell.
  8. Define nucleolus. 
    Makes ribosomes. 
  9. Define cilia.  
    Allows movement for certain cells.
  10. Define cytoplasm.
    Jelly-like material enclosed by the cell membrane. 
  11. Define lysome.
    Breaks down toxins and digests wastes.
  12. Define chloroplasts.
    Allows plants to make their own food.
  13. Define cell wall.
    Provides structure and support for plant cells. 
  14. Define vacuole. 
    a container filled with water, nutrients, and waste. 
  15. Define cell cycle.
    The series of events that takes place in a cell leading to its division.
  16. How is the cell cycle evident in our body?
    During interphase when chromosomes are copied, right before mitosis begins.
  17. Define mitosis.
    The division of cells that occurs so cells can multiply and the organism can grow.
  18. What are the 4 stages of mitosis?
    • 1. Prophase
    • 2. Metaphase
    • 3. Anaphase
    • 4. Telophase 
  19. Define asexual reproduction.
    A single organism generates an ofspring with identical characteristics to the parent.
  20. Define binary fission.
    An organism splits directly into two equal-sized offspring.
  21. What is an example of binary fission?
    Bacteria infections.
  22. Define budding.
    An offspring begins as a small out growth of the parent and eventually breaks off.
  23. What is an example of budding?
  24. Define sporulation.
    When spores get released out of special spore cases so they can grow into a new cell through mitotic cell division.
  25. What is an example of sporulation?
  26. Define regeneration.
    When an invertebrate is divided in fragments and becomes a new organism by regenerating the missing parts. 
  27. What is an exmaple of regeneration?
  28. Define propagation. 
    A new organism is created from the roots, stems, or leaves of plants.
  29. What is an example of propagation?
    African violet.
  30. Define sexual reproduction.
    A reproduction process involving two sexes and the offspring is genetically different from both parents.
  31. Defeine gametes.
    Specialized female and male sex cells for reproduction.
  32. Define zygote.
    The new cell formed by the process of fertilization.
  33. Define embryo.
    A fertilized egg during early developement.
  34. Define fertilization.
    The process by which gametes from two parents combine to form one new cell.
  35. Define meiosis.
    In cell division, the process that ensures each gamete is haploid. 
  36. Define haploid. 
    Having a single set of chromosomes which is 23 chromosomes.
  37. Define diploid.
    Having two sets of chromosomes which is 46 chromosomes.
  38. Define sex cells.
    A reproductive cell responsible for transmitting DNA to the next generation.
  39. Define sperm.
    The gametes in male animals.
  40. Define egg.
    The gametes in female animals.
  41. Define chromosomes.
    Carries genetic information.
  42. Why is meiosis important?
    It is important for the reproduction of the 4 haploid cells.
  43. How many chromosomes should a zygote have?
    A zygote should have 46 chromosomes.
  44. How many chromosomes should a gamete have?
    A gamete should have 23 chromosomes.