The flashcards below were created by user shosh114 on FreezingBlue Flashcards.

  1. Criteria for a diagnosis of diabetes
    • Fasting glucose over 126, measured on 2 separate occasions
    • Random glucose over 200
    • HbA1c over 6.5% on two separate occasions
  2. Treatments goals for diabetes
    • Postprandial glucose under 180 mg/dL
    • Fasting glucose between 70-130 mg/dL
    • HbA1c under 7% (HbA1c is approximately equal to 20x the average glucose level over the past 3 months)
  3. Two most common causes of DKA
    • Non-compliance
    • Infection
  4. Common presenting symptoms of diabetes
    • Polyuria, polydipsia, polyphagia
    • Candidal infection
    • Blurry vision
  5. What is diabetic gastroparesis, and how is it treated?
    • Impaired autonomic NS prevents the stomach from emptying properly after meals, leading to early satiety, nausea, and vomiting
    • Treat with motolity agents like metoclopramide
  6. Timeframe of NPH
    • Starts to work in 1--1.5 hours
    • Peaks at 6--8┬áhours
    • Total duration of 12--20 hours
  7. What is the Somogyi effect?
    • A physiological reaction to hypoglycemia that typically occurs in diabetics whose insulin doses are too high
    • Hypoglycemia triggers release of stress hormones such as cortisol and glucagon that raise blood sugar
    • Patients present with high 7 AM glucose; management is to reduce nighttime insulin dose
  8. What is the dawn phenomenon?
    • Early morning hyperglycemia, due to physiologic morning release of GH
    • Unlike in the Somogyi effect, where 3 AM glucose is low, in the dawn phenomenon, 3 AM glucose will be normal or high
    • Treat by increasing evening insulin dose (unlike Somogyi, where you decrease the evening dose)
  9. How should the insulin dose of a diabetic be adjusted if the patient is NPO before surgery?
    • Give 1/3--1/2 the normal dose
    • Monitor glucose
Card Set
step II
Show Answers