ENT

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Author:
shosh114
ID:
160105
Filename:
ENT
Updated:
2012-06-26 03:50:41
Tags:
step II
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Description:
step II
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  1. What is the most common cause of LMN facial nerve paralysis, and how does it present?
    • Bell palsy
    • Sudden, unilateral onset, usually after an URI
    • Can be due to reactivation of HSV infection
    • Usually resolves spontaneously within a month; can use steroids and antivirals to lessen duration
  2. Causes of LMN facial nerve paralysis, apart from Bell palsy
    • HSV infection (Ramsay-Hunt syndrome, may be associated with encephalitis or meningits)
    • Lyme disease
    • Stroke
    • Middle ear infection
    • Meningitis
    • Temporal bone fracture
    • Acoustic schwannoma
  3. Most common cause of sudden-onset deafness
    • Viral infection (endolymphatic labyrinthitis from mumps, measles, flu, chickenpox, or adeno)
    • Hearing usually returns within 2 weeks, but loss may be permanent
    • No known effective treatment
  4. Causes of vertigo
    • CN VIII lesions--Menniere disease, tumor, infection, MS,
    • Benign positional vertigo
  5. Most common cause of viral rhinitis
    Rhinovirus
  6. Most common cause of bacterial rhinitis
    • GAS, pneumococci, staphylocci
    • Often accompanied by sore throat, fever, and tonsillar exudate
  7. Most common cause of otitis externa ("swimmer's ear")
    • P. aeruginosa
    • Presents with painful auricle, smelly discharge, and conductive hearing loss
    • Treat with topical antibiotics (neomycin, polymyxin)
  8. Infectious myringitis
    • Inflammation of the tympanic membrane
    • Vesicles will be visible on otoscopy
    • Usually caused by mycoplasma, but can also be caused by S. pneumonia, or viruses
    • Treat with erythromycin or clarithromycin
  9. Most common cause of progressive conductive hearing loss in adults
    Otosclerosis--fusion of the bones of the middle ear
  10. Most common cause of sensorineural hearing loss in adults
    Presbyacusis
  11. Management of septal hematoma in nasal fracture
    Surgical removal, to prevent septal necrosis

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