Cancer part 3

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Author:
ambirc
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160149
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Cancer part 3
Updated:
2012-06-26 13:56:29
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HMIT 210 Cancer Part
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HMIT 210 Cancer Part 3 Question 14-25
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  1. Stomach Cancer ******* •most common malignancy
    worldwide
    • fourth
    •  
  2. Most common type of stomach Cancer
    • adenocarcinoma
    • •Starts from one of the common cell types found in the lining of the stomach
  3. •Incidence of stomach cancer reducing due to
    • •Advent of refrigeration
    • •Year-round consumption of fruits and vegetables
    • •Vitamin C
    • •Whole grain cereals
  4. •Colorectal cancer starts
    •Starts in the large intestine or the rectum
  5. •Colorectal cancer Common in Western societies due to
    • Modifiable risk factors
    • •Diet (high-fat food, refined carbohydrates, animal
    • protein)
    • •Low physical activity
    • Non-modifiable risk factors
    • •Age
    • •Familial
  6. Colorectal Cancer Dection
    •Screening (fecal occult blood test)

    •Colonoscopy
  7. Liver cancer (also known as hepatocellular carcinoma)
    • (a) Highest percentage of all primary liver cancers
    • (b) Affects men more frequently than women
    • (c) Associated with dietary ingestion of mold toxins
    •  
  8. True or False Liver Cancer is Not the same as metastatic liver cancer that originates in another organ and
    spreads to the liver
    True
  9. Causes of Liver Cancer
    Causes include alcohol abuse, autoimmune diseases of the liver, hepatitis B or C viral infection, and hemochromatosis
  10. What is the 2nd most common cancer in women
    Cervical
  11. Cervical Cancer
    • (b) Incidence and mortality declined in Western societies
    • (c) Studies indicate role of human papillomavirus infection
  12. Cervical Cancer risk factor include
    high-risk sexual behavior, poor economic status, and weakened immune system
  13. Two types of cells play a role in cervical cancer
    squamous (most frequent form) and columnar
  14. Cervical Cancer starts from a precancerous condition known as 
    dysplasia
  15. Cerivical Cancer Diagnosed
  16. by Pap smear
  17. Uterine cancer and its linkage to reproductive life
    • (a)Higher in women who have never been pregnant
    • (b)Women in late menopause
  18. Ovarian cancer
    • (a) Occurs in one or both ovaries
    • (b) May metastasize to other parts of the abdomen
    • (c) Minimal symptoms in early stages due to anatomical location of ovaries
    • (d) Frequently diagnosed in advanced stages
    • (e) Associated with family history
    • (f) Influenced by hormones and reproductive factors
  19. Prostate cancer
    • (a) Third most prevalent in men worldwide
    • (b) Risk factors include age and diet
    • (c)Symptoms are due to benign prostatic hypertrophy include changes in urination, blood in urine, and lower abdominal pain resembling urinary tract infection
  20. Cancer of the testes
    • (a) Most common form of cancer in men between 15 and 35 years of age
    • (b) Malignant tumors originate from two types of germ cells
    • (c) Detected by self-examination of the testes
  21. Seminoma
    cancer of sperm-producing cells, slow growing, sensitive to radiation, and more treatable than nonseminomas
  22. Nonseminoma
     cancerof embryonic cells, grows and spreads more rapidly than seminoma, and is difficult to treat
  23. Lymphoma
    • (a)
    • Heterogenous group of neoplasms of lymphoid tissue

    • (b)
    • Major types include Hodgkin’s disease or lymphoma and Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma

    • (c) Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma is the most prevalent form in the US and world
    • (d) The presence of Reed-Sternberg cells within the lymph node in Hodgkin’s disease or lymphoma differentiates it from Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma
    • (e) Symptoms are similar for the two types of lymphomas
  24. Leukemia
    • (a) Massive proliferation of immature forms of white blood cells
    • (b) Diagnosed more frequently in adults than children
    • (f) Symptoms for acute leukemia appear suddenly, while chronic leukemia progress
    • slowly
  25. Leukemia classified based on?
    • (c) Malignancy classified based on involvement of lymphoid (B or T cells) or myeloid (bone marrow) tissue
    •  (d) Further classified as either acute or chronic
  26. Leukemia diagnoses
    • (e) Difficult to diagnose initially because symptoms resemble other less serious conditions
    •  (g) Diagnosis includes blood tests to check for high levels of white blood cells and low levels platelets and hemoglobin, and biopsy to see if leukemic cells originated in the bone marrow
  27. Pancreatic cancer
    • (a) Difficult to diagnose and treat
    • (b) Risk factors include cigarette smoking (smokers more likely to develop pancreatic cancer than nonsmokers) ad diet (low fiber and red meat)
    • (c)Survival rate is poor (<1-year survival once diagnosed)
  28. Melanoma
    • (a) Malignancy of melanocytes, pigment-producing skin cells
    • (b) Most serious form of skin cancer causing most of the skin-related cancer deaths
    • (c)Less common than other skin cancers such as basal cell and squamous cell carcinomas
  29. Melenoma Risk factors
    (c) Light-skinned individuals at much greater risk than dark-skinned individuals

    (d) Risk factors include sunlight industrial chemicals, past history of skin cancer
  30. Melenoma Dected by 
    Detected by examination of skin- the ABCD rule (asymmetry, border irregularity, color, and diameter)

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