HCCC A&P II SUM1 FINAL
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What are the basic components of the Immune system?
- 1. Pathogens (bacteria, viruses, infections
- 2. WBC (leukocytes)
- 3. Antibodies
- 4. Antigens (pathogen fragments)
What is a Major Histocompatibity Complex I?
Where is it located?
Receptors found on the plasma membrane of cells which express a specfic antigen.
Leukocytoes: Name to two branches and there subbranch compontents.
Lymophcytes: T, B, NK cell
Other WBC: Eosinphlis and macrophages
What does Eosinphilis produce during an allergic reaction?
interleukin 1 & 2 (types of WBC)
Name the bodies reaction to infection.
Helper T cells activate B cells, B cells produce antibodies, antibodies bind to MHC I of infected cells, Killer T cells destroy infected cells.
Name the four types of T cells.
Helper: secrete lymphokines to flag foreign bodies
Memory: a copy of Helper, help the bodied fight faster, after secondary exposure
Suppressor: slows/stops foreign bodies
Killer: finds specifically coded infected cells and destroys them with cytotoxins.
Name the five types of immunoglobulins (antibodies) produced by B- cells and their functions.
IgG = actived against bacteria and virus
IgM = usually during first exposure of non-self antigen
IgA = most common in mucosal surfaces
IgD = expressed in B cells
IgE = in allergic reactions
Name the three Immune Responses to trauma
1. Inflammatory: mast cell produce Bradykinin and Hisamines, which cause vasodialation
2. Interferons: interferons bind with virus, which slow or stop replications.
3. Fever: the response to toxins in the body produced by bacteria. Release interleukin 1 (Pyrogen), which cause the body temperture to raise.
P.S. Pyro means fire in Greek!
What do vaccinations do?
Introduce a dormant/dead pathogen which allows the body to do its primary immune response without the risk of actual sickness.
What are the two general types of antigens found in the body?
self antigens (your own cells)
non-self antigens (foreign cells)
If WBC's attack self-antigens, what is this called?
An autoimmune disease. Ie. Multiple Sclerosis which attacks the nervous system.
How does Lyme disease attack our body?
Lyme disease is an autoimmune disease, caused by spriochete, which releases neurotoxics. These neurotoxics bind to self cells, which cause our body to attack itself.
What is the function of the Lymphatic System?
- Drains interstitial fluids
- Transports dietary lipids
List the cycle of the Lymphatic system.
Lymph capilliaries collect excess interstitial fluid
The fluid is within the capilliaries is called lymph
Capilliaries turn into vessels
Muscle contraction and values help propell the lymph up towards the heart.
What is the difference between the Cardiorespritory and Lymphatic System?
- Cardio has a pump (the heart)
- Lymp has no pump
- Cardio is bidirectional
- Lymp is unidirectional
Name the parts of the Lymph Node:
Affererent vessels: lymph entrance
Germial Center: produces B cells & swells during highten production
Medulla: site of phagocytosin
Cortex: contains follicles which collect lymphocytes
Efferant vessels: lymph exit
Name the organs of the Lymphatic System:
1. Red Bone Marrow: (produce RBC, WBC)
2. Thymus: produces thymosin, program T & B cells, T cell mature here.
3. Lymph Nodes: important lymphcytes of the immune response are mature here
4. Spleen: filters blood, destory infected blood, and keeps a blood reserve.
5. Tonsils: traps bacteria and other microbes in the throat
6. Peyer's Patach (Lacteal Vessels) captures and destroys bacteria in the intenstines.
Name the Lymphocytes Systems response to a cut
1. Physical barriers: skin, mucosa, chemical barriers
2. Phagocytosis: neutorphilis and macrophages react
3. Inflammation: Mast cells activate.
4. Specific Antigen Attack via B & T cells
Name the two types of gonads and what they produce.
Ovaries produce ovum
testes produce sperm
Where is sperm producted?
The seminiferious tubule, caused by lyedig cells which produce testonsterone.
Name the six steps of Sperm -at -o- gensis
- 1. From the get Go: Sperm at a GOnia
- 2. Primary Sperm-at-o-cytes
- 3. Secondary Sperm-at-o-cytes
- 4. Early Sperm-at-ids
- 5. Late Sperm-at-ids
- 6. Sperm-at-o-zoa
Name the parts of the sperm:
1. Arcosome: contains lysomal enzymes to break open the corona radiata
2. Nuclues: contains the DNA
3. Midpiece: contains mitochrondria (powerhouse) to generate ATP
4. Tail: for movement
What controls sperm production?
FSH and testonsterone
What protects sperm from WBC?
Ser-to-li cells (tight junctions) within the memberance of the sperm which prevent WBC from recognizing it as a non self antigen.
Name the stages of the ovum.
- 1. Primary follicle
- 2. Secondary follicle
- 3. ovulation (ovum expelled)
- 4. corpus lutuem
- 5. corpus lutuem enlarges
- 6. corpus albican
What stimulates ovum production?
- FSH: stimulate follicle to start developing (pituitary)
- LH: causes ovulation (pituitary)
- estrogen: helps blood vessels develop in the uterus (follicle)
- progesterone: same as above (corpus lutuem)
Name the different cleavages of a zygote
- One cell
- Four cell
- Morulla (mullberry in appearance)
- Early blastocyst
- Late blastocyst
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