Exam 5

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jhondras
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160162
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Exam 5
Updated:
2012-06-27 22:00:12
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Microbiology
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Chapters 10-12
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  1. Taxonomy
    How we classify living organisms
  2. Phylogeny
    • Evolutionary history of a group of organisms
    • Based on rRNA sequence because it mutates at a lower rate than DNA
  3. Three Domains of Life
    • Bacteria
    • Archae
    • Eukaryotes
  4. Bacteria
    • Mitochondria
    • Cyanobacteria
    • Chloroplasts
    • Gram-Negative
    • Gram-Positive
    • Thermotoga
  5. Archae
    • Extreme halophiles
    • Methanogens
    • Hyperthermophiles
  6. Eukaryotes
    • Animal
    • Fungi
    • Plants
    • Protozoa
    • Algae
  7. Bionmial Nomenclature
    • Domain
    • Kingdom
    • Phylum
    • Class
    • Order
    • Family
    • Genus
    • Species
  8. Way to remember binomial nomenclature
    Dumb King Philip Came Over From Germany Stoned
  9. Dichotomous Key
    Series of yes/no questions
  10. Cladograms
    • shows ribosomal rRNA similarities by percentages
    • Phylogenetic Tree
  11. Morphology
    • shape and arrangement of organism
    • includes gram stain 
  12. Biochemical Tests
    • testing for bacterial enzymes to find color change in media
    • -indicators are put in media for color change 
  13. Serology
    • Antibody-antigen reactions
    • causes coagulation (presense of antigen)
    • used for diagnosis in medical fields 
  14. Phage Typing
    • bacteriophage=viruses that infect bacteria
    • determines which bacteria are on an unknown plate. Whichever virus kills the bacteria is how bacteria is ID'd 
  15. Fatty Acid Profiles
    ID's bacteria by determining type of fatty acid in plasma membrane
  16. Flow Cytometry
    • Physical and chemical method
    • passing liquid suspension of organism through a small hole and laser reflects off it giving info about morphology 
  17. DNA Base Composition
    • G + C
    • guanine and Cytosine composition in DNA
    • classifies into high G+C and low G"+C 
  18. DNA Fingerprintin
    • used in foresenics
    • Match DNA with sample
    • 1)extract DNA
    • 2)PCR to amplify
    • 3) restriction enzymes cut DNA into pieces
    • 4) run DNA on gel that gives individual band pattern 
  19. PCR
    • Polymerase Chain Reaction
    • amplifcation of DNA 
  20. Nucleic Acid Hybridization
    • uses probe 
    • complementary bases hydrogen bond with each other and prob then ID's unknown organism 
  21. DNA Chips
    • 100s-1000s of probes on a glass slide to see if an organism reacts. 
    • Used in military 
  22. Ribotyping
    same as fingerprinting but with RNA instead of DNA
  23. Fluorescent insitu Hybridization (FISH)
    Same as Nucleic acid hybridization but probe is flourscent
  24. Proteobacteria
    Gram negative
  25. Alpha Protobacteria
    • -erlichia
    • ricketsia
    • bartonella
    • brucella
    • acetobacter
    • bradyrhizobium 
    • rhizobuim
    • azospriillium
    • bierjnickia
    • wolbachia
    • agrobacteria 
  26. Alpha Proteobacteria Pathogen
    • Erlichia
    • ricketsia
    • bartonella
    • brucella 
  27. Erlichia
    Alpha Proteobacteria Pathogen
  28. Ricketsia
    Alpha Proteobacteria Pathogen
  29. Bartonella
    Alpha Proteobacteria Pathogen
  30. Brucella
    Alpha Proteobacteria Pathogen
  31. Acetobacter
    • Alpha Proteobacteria 
    • Makes vinegar 
  32. Bradyrhizobium & Rhizobium
    • symbiotic nitrogen fixation with legumes
    • Alpha Proteobacteria 
  33. Azospirillium and Bierjnickia
    • Alpha Proteobacteria 
    • free living nitrogen fixers 
  34. Wolbachia
    • Alpha Proteobacteria 
    • most common insect symbioant 
  35. Agrobacteria
    • Alpha Proteobacteria 
    • plant pathogen 
  36. Beta Proteobacteria
    • Bordella
    • Neisseira
    • Thiobacillus
    • Nitrosomonas
    • Zoogloea 
  37. Beta Proteobacteria Pathogens
    • Bordella
    • Neisseira 
  38. Bordella
    Beta Proteobacteria Pathogen
  39. Neisseira
    Beta Proteobacteria Pathogen
  40. Thiobacillus
     
    • Beta Proteobacteria
    • Sulfur oxidizer 
  41. Nitrosomonas
    • Beta Proteobacteria
    • thrns ammonia to NO2- or NO3- 
  42. Zoogloea
    • Beta Proteobacteria 
    • sewage treatment 
  43. Gamma Proteobacteria
    • Ecoli
    • Salomonella
    • Shigella
    • Vibrio
    • Legionella
    • Proteus
    • Yersinia
    • Haemophilus
    • Pasteurella
    • Coxiella
    • Pseudomonas
    • Citrobacter
    • Enterobacter
    • Klebsiella
    • Chromatium 
  44. Gamma Proteobactgeria Pathogens
    • Ecoli
    • Salomonella
    • Shigella
    • Vibrio
    • Legionella
    • Proteus
    • Yersinia
    • Haemophilus
    • Pasteurella
    • Coxiella 
  45. E coli
    Gamma Proteobacteria Pathogen
  46. Salomonella
    • Gamma Proteobacteria Pathogen
    •  
  47. Shigella
    Gamma Proteobacteria Pathogen
  48. Vibrio
    Gamma Proteobacteria Pathogen
  49. Legionella
    Gamma Proteobacteria Pathogen
  50. Proteus
    Gamma Proteobacteria Pathogen
  51. Yersinia
    Gamma Proteobacteria Pathogen
  52. Haemophilus
    Gamma Proteobacteria Pathogen
  53. Coxiella
    Gamma Proteobacteria Pathogen
  54. Pasteurella
    Gamma Proteobacteria Pathogen
  55. Gamma Proteobacteria Oppurtunitic Pathogens
    • Pseudomonas
    • Citrobacter
    • Enterobacter
    • Klebsiella 
  56. Pseudomonas
    Gamma Proteobacteria Oppurtunitic Pathogens
  57. Citrobacter
    Gamma Proteobacteria Oppurtunitic Pathogens
  58. Enterobacter
    Gamma Proteobacteria Oppurtunitic Pathogens
  59. Klebsiella
    Gamma Proteobacteria Oppurtunitic Pathogens
  60. Chromatium
    • Gamma Proteobacteria
    • Photosynthetic and anoxygenetic 
  61. Delta Proteobacteria
    • Bdellovibrio
    • Desulfobivrio 
  62. Bdellovibrio
    Delta Proteobacteria
  63. Desulfovibrio
    • Delta Proteobacteria
    • sulfur reducer 
  64. Epsilon Proteobacteria
    • Helicobacter
    • Campylobacter
    •  
  65. Cyanobacteria
    • gram postitive 
    • photosynthetic
    • oxygenic
    •  
  66. Chlorobi
    • gram +
    • photosynthetic
    • anoxygenic
    •  
  67. Chloroflexi
    • gram +
    • photosyntheitc
    • anoxygenic
    •  
  68. Firmicutes
    • low G+C
    • gram positive
    • bacillus
    • listeria
    • staphyloccus
    • streptococcus
    • clostridium
    • lactobacillus 
  69. Bacillus
    • Firmicutes
    • Human Pathogen 
  70. Listeria
    • Firmicutes
    • Human Pathogen 
  71. Staphylococcus
    • Firmicutes
    • Human Pathogen 
  72. Streptococcus
    • Firmicutes
    • Human Pathogen 
  73. Clostridium
    • Firmicutes
    • Human Pathogen 
  74. Lactobacillus
    • Firmicutes
    • Importnant in diary fermentation 
  75. Actinobacteria
    • High G+C
    • Gram positive 
    • Gardenerlla
    • Mycobacterium (TB)
    • corynebacterium
    • streptomyces
    • frankia 
  76. Gardnerella
    • Actinobacteria
    • human pathogen 
  77. Mycobacterium
    • Human Pathogen (TB)
    • Actinobacteria 
  78. Corynebacterium
    • Actinobacteria
    • human pathogen 
  79. Streptomyces
    • Actinobacteria
    • produces many antibiotics 
  80. Frankia
    • Actinobacteria
    • Symbiotic N2 Fixation 
  81. Planctomycetes
    no cell wall
  82. Chlamydiae
    Tiny intracellular himan pathogens
  83. Spirochetes
    • Borrelia
    • Leptospira
    • Treponema 
  84. Bacteroidetes
    • Flora
    •  
  85. Fuscobacterium
    Flora
  86. Archaea
    • Crenarchaeota
    • Euryarcheaota 
  87. Crenarchaeota
    • Gram -
    • hyperthermophiles 
  88. Euryarchaeota
    • Gram + or variable
    • halobacterium
    • methanogens 
  89. Algae
    • Green
    • Red
    • Brown
    • Diatoms
    • Dinoflagelates
    • Water Molds

    All have cell wall of cellulose 
  90. Green Algae
    at surface
  91. Brown algae
    • 80m-surface
    • seaweeds
    •  
  92. Red algae
    150-250m
  93. Diatoms
    • Cell wall of silica and pectin
    • stores oil 
  94. Dinoflagelates
    • some are pathogens
    • store starch
    • red tide 
  95. Water Molds
    no storage
  96. Protozoa Cyst
    dormant form
  97. Protozoa trophozoite
    active growing form
  98. Definitive host
    host in which sexual reproduction happens in protozoa
  99. Intermediate Host
    host in which asexual reproduction happens in protozoa
  100. Protozoa
    • Archaezoa
    • Microspore
    • Amoebozoa
    • Apicomplexia
    • Ciliophora
    • Euglenozoa 
  101. Archaezoa
    Protozoa

    • Giardia lambia
    • trichomonas vaginalis 
  102. Microspore
    Protozoa

    Nosema 
  103. Amoebzoa
    Protozoa

    entamoeba histolytica 
  104. Apicomplexia
    • plasmodium
    • toxoplasm
    • cyclospora
    • cryptosporidium 
  105. Ciliophora
    • Protozoa
    • balantidium coli 
  106. Euglenozoa
    Protozoa

    • Trypanosoma
    • Leishmania 
  107. Hemliths
    • Flatworms
    • Roundworms 
  108. Flatworms
     
    No digestive tracts

    • Trematodes
    • Cestodes 
  109. Trematoes
    Schistosoma
  110. Schistosoma
    • Flatworm (trematodes)
    • can go through skin into bloodstream
    • in freshwater 
  111. Cestodes
    • Beef tapeworm
    • pork tapeworm
    • dog tapeworm 
  112. Taenia saginatus
    • Cestode
    • beef tapeworm 
  113. Taenia Solium
    • cestode
    • pork tapeworm 
  114. Echonococcus Granulosis
    • Cestode
    • Dog heartworm 
  115. Round Worms
    Nematodes
  116. Nematodes
    • pinworm
    • hookworm
    • trichinella
    • ascariasis 
  117. Arachnida
    8 legs
  118. insects
    6 legs
  119. Fugni
    • molds (filamentous) and y easts (unicellular)
    • eukaryotic
    • chemoheterotrophs
    • great recyclers and breakdown of everything that has died 
  120. Fungi good
    • Recyclers
    • Cheeses
    • Soy
    • Tenderize aged meats
    • Beer, bread, wine 
  121. Fungi bad 
    food spoilage
  122. Fungi uglyu
    • human pathogens
    • candida albicans (UTI)
    • thrush in oral cavity 
  123. Four divisions of fungi
    • 1) Zygomycetes
    • 2)ascomycetes
    • 3)basidiomycetes 
    • 4) deuteromycetes 
  124. Zygomycetes
    • Bread and terrestrial molds
    • Asexual spores: sporangiospores
    • Sexual Spores: zygospores 
  125. Ascomycetes
    • Yeasts and molds
    • Asexual Spores: Conidia 
    • Sexual Spores: Ascospores 
  126. Basidomycetes
    • flesshy fungii, mushrooms, toadstools
    • Asexual spores: conidia 
    • Sexual Spores: Basidospores 
  127. Deuteromycetes
    • Fungii imperfecti
    • No sexual reproduction 
  128. Hyphae
    • indicidual filaments of a mold
    • Two types:
    •     Vegetative or nutritional 
    •      Sexual 
  129. Mycelium
    whole mass of hyphae

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