Exam 2: Parotid Region
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Where is the parotid gland?
just beneath skin in front of ear
What joint does the parotid gland cover?
temporomandibular joint (TMJ)
What bony structure does the parotid gland cover?
ramus of mandible
What is the largest salivary gland?
What is the area that the parotid gland occupies called?
What is the parotid bed?
a three-dimensional space that is occupied by the parotid gland
What is the parotid region?
a bony, muscular, and fascial-lined space, with defining boundries
medial pterygoid and massester mm.
What are the contents of te parotid region?
- parotid gland
- external carotid artery and several of its branches
- -superficial temporal
- external jugular vein and several of its tributaries
- -retromandibular v.
- -posterior auricular
- parts of facial nerve (CN VII)
- parts of trigeminal nerve (CN V)
What type of branches does the facial nerve have in the parotid region?
motor branches to mm. of face
Where does the parotid duct terminate?
at oral vestibule (between cheek and teeth)
How is external jugular vein formed?
by retromanibular v. and posterior auricular v.
Why is the parotid gland covered by dense connective tissue?
inhibits swelling and inflamation
What are the parts of the parotid gland?
superficial and deep
What is the suprficial part of the parotid gland?
covers most of masseter and extends anteriorly along parotid duct
What indicates the dividing line between te deep and superficial parts?
position of facial nerve and its terminal branches, which pass through substance of gland
What is contained in the deep part of the parotid gland?
- external carotid artery with several of its branches
- retromandibular vein with its tributaries
- auriculotemporal nerve
What is the auriculotemporal nerve a branch of?
trigeminal nerve (CN V)
How many ducts carry the secretions of the parotid gland?
Where is the parotid duct?
courses superficially over massete to pierce buccinator muscle
Where does the parotid duct open into?
vestibule of the oral cavity adjacent to the second upper molar tooth
What is the effect of stimulation by sympathetic nerves to the parotid gland?
reduced saliva secretion
Why does stimulation by sympathetic nerves reduce saliva secretion?
due to vasoconstriction of vessls supply the parotid gland
What does stimulation by parasympathetic fibers in the glossopharyngeal nerve (CN IX) result in?
increased saliva production
With viral infections, such as mumps, what happens to the parotid region?
swelling which compresses auriculotemporal nerve, producing much pain
What does the auriculotemporal nerve supply?
sensory to ear and temporal region
Why would a surgeon need to remove the parotid gland?
presence of tumors
How must a benign tumor of the parotid region be removed?
piece by piece, to avoid the facial nerve traveling through it
What arteries supply the parotid gland?
branches of posterior auricular, superficial temporal, and transverse facial arteries
Which veins drain the parotid gland?
tributaries of rtromandibular vein
Where doe lymphatic drainage go?
- two groups of cervical lymph nodes
- -superficial cervical lymph nodes
- -deep cervical lymph nodes
Where are the superficial cervical lymph nodes?
adjacent to external jugular vein
Where are the deep cervical lymph nodes?
adjacent to internal jugular vein
Which nerves provide sensory innervation to the parotid gland?
- great auricular n.
- auriculotemporal n.
What is the great auricular nerve a branch of?
Where does the preganglionic parasympathetic neuron of the glossopharyngea n. synapse with the postganglionic neuron?
at otic ganglion
Where do the postganglionic fibers of the glossopharyngeal n. travel?
to parotid gland
How do the postganglionic fibers of the glossopharyngeal nerve travel to the parotid gland?
via auriculotemporal n.
Which cranial nerve is th eglossopharyngeal nerve?
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