Exam 2: Parotid Region

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  1. Where is the parotid gland?
    just beneath skin in front of ear
  2. What joint does the parotid gland cover?
    temporomandibular joint (TMJ)
  3. What bony structure does the parotid gland cover?
    ramus of mandible
  4. What is the largest salivary gland?
    parotid gland
  5. What is the area that the parotid gland occupies called?
    parotid bed
  6. What is the parotid bed?
    a three-dimensional space that is occupied by the parotid gland
  7. What is the parotid region?
    a bony, muscular, and fascial-lined space, with defining boundries
  8. Parotid region
    Posterior boundary: 
    mastoid process
  9. Parotid region
    Medial boundary: 
    styloid process
  10. Parotid region
    Anterior boundary: 
    medial pterygoid and massester mm.
  11. What are the contents of te parotid region?
    • parotid gland
    • external carotid artery and several of its branches
    • -superficial temporal
    • external jugular vein and several of its tributaries
    • -retromandibular v.
    • -posterior auricular
    • parts of facial nerve (CN VII)
    • parts of trigeminal nerve (CN V)       
  12. What type of branches does the facial nerve have in the parotid region?
    motor branches to mm. of face
  13. Where does the parotid duct terminate?
    at oral vestibule (between cheek and teeth)
  14. How is external jugular vein formed?
    by retromanibular v. and posterior auricular v.
  15. Why is the parotid gland covered by dense connective tissue?
    inhibits swelling and inflamation
  16. What are the parts of the parotid gland?
    superficial and deep
  17. What is the suprficial part of the parotid gland?
    covers most of masseter and extends anteriorly along parotid duct
  18. What indicates the dividing line between te deep and superficial parts?
    position of facial nerve and its terminal branches, which pass through substance of gland
  19. What is contained in the deep part of the parotid gland?
    • external carotid artery with several of its branches
    • retromandibular vein with its tributaries
    • auriculotemporal nerve  
  20. What is the auriculotemporal nerve a branch of?
    trigeminal nerve (CN V)
  21. How many ducts carry the secretions of the parotid gland?
  22. Where is the parotid duct?
    courses superficially over massete to pierce buccinator muscle
  23. Where does the parotid duct open into?
    vestibule of the oral cavity adjacent to the second upper molar tooth
  24. What is the effect of stimulation by sympathetic nerves to the parotid gland?
    reduced saliva secretion
  25. Why does stimulation by sympathetic nerves reduce saliva secretion?
    due to vasoconstriction of vessls supply the parotid gland
  26. What does stimulation by parasympathetic fibers in the glossopharyngeal nerve (CN IX) result in?
    increased saliva production
  27. With viral infections, such as mumps, what happens to the parotid region?
    swelling which compresses auriculotemporal nerve, producing much pain
  28. What does the auriculotemporal nerve supply?
    sensory to ear and temporal region
  29. Why would a surgeon need to remove the parotid gland?
    presence of tumors
  30. How must a benign tumor of the parotid region be removed?
    piece by piece, to avoid the facial nerve traveling through it
  31. What arteries supply the parotid gland?
    branches of posterior auricular, superficial temporal, and transverse facial arteries 
  32. Which veins drain the parotid gland?
    tributaries of rtromandibular vein
  33. Where doe lymphatic drainage go?
    • two groups of cervical lymph nodes
    • -superficial cervical lymph nodes
    • -deep cervical lymph nodes  
  34. Where are the superficial cervical lymph nodes?
    adjacent to external jugular vein
  35. Where are the deep cervical lymph nodes?
    adjacent to internal jugular vein
  36. Which nerves provide sensory innervation to the parotid gland?
    • great auricular n.
    • auriculotemporal n. 
  37. What is the great auricular nerve a branch of?
    cervical plexus
  38. Where does the preganglionic parasympathetic neuron of the glossopharyngea n. synapse with the postganglionic neuron?
    at otic ganglion
  39. Where do the postganglionic fibers of the glossopharyngeal n. travel?
    to parotid gland
  40. How do the postganglionic fibers of the glossopharyngeal nerve travel to the parotid gland?
    via auriculotemporal n.
  41. Which cranial nerve is th eglossopharyngeal nerve?
    CN IX
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Exam 2: Parotid Region
review of 6/26 lecture on parotid region for exam 2
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