Cardiopulmonology and Lymphatics

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  1. Systemic circulation
    Left heart --> periphery --> right heart
  2. Pulmonary circulation
    Right heart --> lungs --> left heart
  3. Systole & diastole 
    Systole: contraction of ventricles 

    Diastole: relaxation of ventricles and contraction of atria  
  4. How is the blood propelled though the body?
    Hydrostatic P created by the contraction of the heart
  5. What NS innervates the heart and where?
    The parasympathetic NS innervates the SA node through the vagus nerve and acts to slow down contractions
  6. Where do catecholamines have their effect on the circulatory system?
    Epinephrine is a vasoconstrictor that causes the arteries to narrow 
  7. Ways in which nutrient exchange can happen along capillary wall (4)?
    • 1. pinocytosis 
    • 2. diffusion/transport
    • 3. movement through fenestrations
    • 4. movement through intracellular cavities  
  8. How does the dynamic between hydrostatic pressure and osmotic pressure change from the arteriole to venule side of capillaries?
    • Image Upload
    • When H>O, fluid flows OUT of capillaries 

    When O>H, fluid flows back into capillaries  
  9. Which vessels act as blood reservoirs?
    Veins and venules 
  10. Blood flow rate in relation to cross-sectional area and blood velocity.
    Q = Av

    • Flow rate is constant throughout the entire system
    • Capillaries have HUGE cross-sectional areas, so velocity is the slowest there.  
  11. What helps move blood through veins?
    Valves, contraction of skeletal muscles, pumping of the heart 
  12. Which vessel carries the most deoxygenated blood in the entire body?
    The pulmonary artery 
  13. Variation of BP throughout circulation
    Established by the pumping of the heart...the closer the vessel is to the heart, the larger the pressure is 
  14. Where would blood loss be the greatest if a patient were in hypovolemic shock?
    The arteries and not the veins. Although the veins act as a blood reservoir, the arteries are experiencing much more pressure so blood would spurt out. 
  15. CO through circulation 
    CO = HR x SV 

    CO and SV are constant throughout the entire heart  
  16. The diaphragm during breathing 
    Normally curved up but when contracted, it flattens, giving space for the lungs to expand and creating a negative guage pressure 
  17. Pharynx vs. Larynx 
    • Pharynx acts as a tunnelway for food 
    • The larynx is more involved with respiration  
  18. What will shift the O2-saturation curve to the right?
    Rightward shift reduces affinity of Hb for O2, 

    • 1.  Co2
    • 2. [H+]
    • 3. Temperature increase
    • 4. 2,3-DPG
  19. What shift O2-saturation curve to the left?
    Leftward shift increases affinity of Hb to O2 

  20. Forms in which CO2 is carried in the body?
    • 1. Dissolved in blood 
    • 2. Bicarbonate ion
    • 3. Carbamino compounds bound of Hb and other proteins  
  21. Rxn catalyzed by carbonic anhydrase
    CO2 + H2O <---> HCO3- + H+

    Remember that carbonic anhydrase is only an enzyme and does not actually prevent this reaction from happening if inhibited...just slows down 
  22. Chloride shift?
    Carbonic anhydrase forms HCO3- and H+ within the RBC. HCO3- needs to move back into the cell in the lungs to be reconverted into CO2, Cl- moves out of RNC 
  23. Effect of blood pH on respiration
    Too high pH means too much CO2, breathing rate is increased to expel more CO2
  24. What does the lymphatic system carry away from capillaries?
    Proteins and larger particles that can't be taken up through the capillaries
  25. Jobs of the lymp system 
    • Takes blood to lymph nodes, allowing to 
    • 1. Remove excess blood
    • 2. Screen for pathogens
    • 3. Reroutes fats -- the leacteal is the SI lymphatic capillary 
  26. Which is the only part of the body not drained by the lymph system?
    The central nervous system 
  27. Pressure in the lymph system 
    Pressure is typically negative in regard to the other vessels it's surrounded by, which is what pushes fluid into the system. 

    Lymph system has valves and smooth muscle  
  28. Jobs of blood
    • 1. Homeostasis 
    • 2. Heat transportation
    • 3. Movement of nutrients etc. throughout the body  
  29. Blood is composed of...?
    1. Plasma - blood matrix (contain urea, proteins, etc.)

    2. Buffy coat - white blood cells 

    3. Read blood cells = hematocrit (greater in men)  
  30. Important contents of plasma 
    • 1. Albumin
    • 2. Immunoglobulins
    • 3. Clotting factors (fibrinogen)  
  31. What is serum 
    Plasma from which the clotting factors such as fibrinogen have been REMOVED 
  32. How are RBCs different from other cells?
    • 1. They have no nucleus 
    • 2. Do not undergo mitosis 
    • 3. Do not reproduce 
  33. How are leukocytes different from other cells?
    They do not contain hemoglobin 
  34. Where do blood cells originate from?
    Both RBCs and leukocytes come from stem cell precursor ... even Tcells originate from the bone marrow 

    T cells mature in the thymus ... other cells will continue to mature in the bone marrow
  35. Life cycle of leukocytes
    Granular leukocytes: neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils live a very short time 

    Agranular leukocytes: monocytes (become MACs), lymphocytes, megakaryocytes live much longer
  36. What are platelets?
    Bits of magekaryocytes, have no nucleus, adhere to injured endothelium
  37. Innate immunity
    Generalized protection. 

    • 1. Skin
    • 2. Stomach acid & digestive enzymes
    • 3. Phaocytic cells
    • 4. Chemical in blood
  38. Acquired immunity
    Develops after initial exposure to toxin 

    1. Humoral-immunity: B-cell mediated ((bone marrow and liver) ; assisted by T helper cell ; differentiates into plasma and memory B cells ; secondary response, directed against exogenous stimuli 

    2. T-cell mediated immunity: mature in thymus, HIV attacks T-helper cells, infected cells & cancer
  39. Primary response 
    • 1. MACs
    • 2. Neutrophils
    • etc... 
  40. Antibody specificity
    A single Ab is specific for a single Antigen 

    Each B lymphocyte produces only one antibody type
  41. Blood types
    Tell which antigens are present on RBCs in body, rendering them "self" antigens...ANTIBODIES FOR BLOOD-TYPE ANTIGEN ARE NOT MADE

    If Antibody is present, agglutination occurs
  42. How does AB blood happen?
    Individual is codominant
  43. Rh factor
    surface antigen on RBCs
  44. How could immunity be imparted onto someone?
    Antigen exposure...not Ab of plasma cell introduction
  45. Where does thermoregulation in the cardiovascular system happen?
    In the arterioles! 

    Vasoconstriction - heat conserved when cold, constriction of arterioles to limit blood flow and thus heat loss from the skin

    Vasodilation - cool-down mechanism, dilation of arterioles feeding skin to increase heat loss at skin surface 
  46. How does blood pressure change when you elevate your arm? 
    The BP lowers because raising the arm decreases the h in rho*g*h
  47. Bloos squirts from arteries, flows from veins, and oozes from capillaries
  48. Blood osmolarity 
    High blood osmolarity (high pull)- water goes into blood 

    Low blood osmolarity (low pull) - water goes into tissues  
  49. What are the best kind of antigen presenting cells?
    Dendritic cells
  50. Role of: 
    Helper T cells
    Helper T - help to activate Macrophages, T cells, and B cells 
  51. What is different between Plasma cells and Memory B cells?
    Plasma cells, need T cells to be activated 

    Memory B cell, does NOT rely on T cell to make antibodies  
  52. Antibody structure 
    Hypervariable region are the areas specified to a single, unique antigen 

    2 light chains and 2 heavy chains are lined by disulfide bonds  
  53. Monocyte
    Phagocytic leukocytes in the blood
  54. Macrophages 
    Matured monocytes entering damaged tissues 
  55. Eosinophils
    Work against parasitic infections 
  56. Basophils
    Release inflammatory agents
  57. Mast Cells
    display antibodies, release inflammatory agents
  58. Blood types revisited: Who will produce Antibodies for A or B?
    People with certain blood types display that antigen on their RBCs. 

    Someone who has a type A blood type will have A antigens and will NOT produce antibodies. Remember that the production of Abs and recognition of Ag means that the immune system has recognized a foreign agent!

    The only blood types that will produce Abs in response to a A transfusion are O, and B.
  59. CO poisoning 
    Can be overcome by admin of O2 ...

    This means that CO is a competitive inhibitor of sorts  
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Cardiopulmonology and Lymphatics
2012-07-17 14:03:37

MCAT biology
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