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Left heart --> periphery --> right heart
Right heart --> lungs --> left heart
Systole & diastole
Systole: contraction of ventricles
Diastole: relaxation of ventricles and contraction of atria
How is the blood propelled though the body?
Hydrostatic P created by the contraction of the heart
What NS innervates the heart and where?
The parasympathetic NS innervates the SA node through the vagus nerve and acts to slow down contractions
Where do catecholamines have their effect on the circulatory system?
Epinephrine is a vasoconstrictor that causes the arteries to narrow
Ways in which nutrient exchange can happen along capillary wall (4)?
- 1. pinocytosis
- 2. diffusion/transport
- 3. movement through fenestrations
- 4. movement through intracellular cavities
How does the dynamic between hydrostatic pressure and osmotic pressure change from the arteriole to venule side of capillaries?
- When H>O, fluid flows OUT of capillaries
When O>H, fluid flows back into capillaries
Which vessels act as blood reservoirs?
Veins and venules
Blood flow rate in relation to cross-sectional area and blood velocity.
Q = Av
- Flow rate is constant throughout the entire system
- Capillaries have HUGE cross-sectional areas, so velocity is the slowest there.
What helps move blood through veins?
Valves, contraction of skeletal muscles, pumping of the heart
Which vessel carries the most deoxygenated blood in the entire body?
The pulmonary artery
Variation of BP throughout circulation
Established by the pumping of the heart...the closer the vessel is to the heart, the larger the pressure is
Where would blood loss be the greatest if a patient were in hypovolemic shock?
The arteries and not the veins. Although the veins act as a blood reservoir, the arteries are experiencing much more pressure so blood would spurt out.
CO through circulation
CO = HR x SV
CO and SV are constant throughout the entire heart
The diaphragm during breathing
Normally curved up but when contracted, it flattens, giving space for the lungs to expand and creating a negative guage pressure
Pharynx vs. Larynx
- Pharynx acts as a tunnelway for food
- The larynx is more involved with respiration
What will shift the O2-saturation curve to the right?
Rightward shift reduces affinity of Hb for O2,
- 1. Co2
- 2. [H+]
- 3. Temperature increase
- 4. 2,3-DPG
What shift O2-saturation curve to the left?
Leftward shift increases affinity of Hb to O2
Forms in which CO2 is carried in the body?
- 1. Dissolved in blood
- 2. Bicarbonate ion
- 3. Carbamino compounds bound of Hb and other proteins
Rxn catalyzed by carbonic anhydrase
CO2 + H2O <---> HCO3- + H+
Remember that carbonic anhydrase is only an enzyme and does not actually prevent this reaction from happening if inhibited...just slows down
Carbonic anhydrase forms HCO3- and H+ within the RBC. HCO3- needs to move back into the cell in the lungs to be reconverted into CO2, Cl- moves out of RNC
Effect of blood pH on respiration
Too high pH means too much CO2, breathing rate is increased to expel more CO2
What does the lymphatic system carry away from capillaries?
Proteins and larger particles that can't be taken up through the capillaries
Jobs of the lymp system
- Takes blood to lymph nodes, allowing to
- 1. Remove excess blood
- 2. Screen for pathogens
- 3. Reroutes fats -- the leacteal is the SI lymphatic capillary
Which is the only part of the body not drained by the lymph system?
The central nervous system
Pressure in the lymph system
Pressure is typically negative in regard to the other vessels it's surrounded by, which is what pushes fluid into the system.
Lymph system has valves and smooth muscle
Jobs of blood
- 1. Homeostasis
- 2. Heat transportation
- 3. Movement of nutrients etc. throughout the body
Blood is composed of...?
1. Plasma - blood matrix (contain urea, proteins, etc.)
2. Buffy coat - white blood cells
3. Read blood cells = hematocrit (greater in men)
Important contents of plasma
- 1. Albumin
- 2. Immunoglobulins
- 3. Clotting factors (fibrinogen)
What is serum
Plasma from which the clotting factors such as fibrinogen have been REMOVED
How are RBCs different from other cells?
- 1. They have no nucleus
- 2. Do not undergo mitosis
- 3. Do not reproduce
How are leukocytes different from other cells?
They do not contain hemoglobin
Where do blood cells originate from?
Both RBCs and leukocytes come from stem cell precursor ... even Tcells originate from the bone marrow
T cells mature in the thymus ... other cells will continue to mature in the bone marrow
Life cycle of leukocytes
Granular leukocytes: neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils live a very short time
Agranular leukocytes: monocytes (become MACs), lymphocytes, megakaryocytes live much longer
What are platelets?
Bits of magekaryocytes, have no nucleus, adhere to injured endothelium
- 1. Skin
- 2. Stomach acid & digestive enzymes
- 3. Phaocytic cells
- 4. Chemical in blood
Develops after initial exposure to toxin
1. Humoral-immunity: B-cell mediated ((bone marrow and liver) ; assisted by T helper cell ; differentiates into plasma and memory B cells ; secondary response, directed against exogenous stimuli
2. T-cell mediated immunity: mature in thymus, HIV attacks T-helper cells, infected cells & cancer
- 1. MACs
- 2. Neutrophils
A single Ab is specific for a single Antigen
Each B lymphocyte produces only one antibody type
Tell which antigens are present on RBCs in body, rendering them "self" antigens...ANTIBODIES FOR BLOOD-TYPE ANTIGEN ARE NOT MADE
If Antibody is present, agglutination occurs
How does AB blood happen?
Individual is codominant
surface antigen on RBCs
How could immunity be imparted onto someone?
Antigen exposure...not Ab of plasma cell introduction
Where does thermoregulation in the cardiovascular system happen?
In the arterioles!
Vasoconstriction - heat conserved when cold, constriction of arterioles to limit blood flow and thus heat loss from the skin
Vasodilation - cool-down mechanism, dilation of arterioles feeding skin to increase heat loss at skin surface
How does blood pressure change when you elevate your arm?
The BP lowers because raising the arm decreases the h in rho*g*h
Bloos squirts from arteries, flows from veins, and oozes from capillaries
High blood osmolarity (high pull)- water goes into blood
Low blood osmolarity (low pull) - water goes into tissues
What are the best kind of antigen presenting cells?
Helper T cells
Helper T - help to activate Macrophages, T cells, and B cells
What is different between Plasma cells and Memory B cells?
Plasma cells, need T cells to be activated
Memory B cell, does NOT rely on T cell to make antibodies
Hypervariable region are the areas specified to a single, unique antigen
2 light chains and 2 heavy chains are lined by disulfide bonds
Phagocytic leukocytes in the blood
Matured monocytes entering damaged tissues
Work against parasitic infections
Release inflammatory agents
display antibodies, release inflammatory agents
Blood types revisited: Who will produce Antibodies for A or B?
People with certain blood types display that antigen on their RBCs.
Someone who has a type A blood type will have A antigens and will NOT produce antibodies. Remember that the production of Abs and recognition of Ag means that the immune system has recognized a foreign agent!
The only blood types that will produce Abs in response to a A transfusion are O, and B.
Can be overcome by admin of O2 ...
This means that CO is a competitive inhibitor of sorts