BIOL 100 Exam 4

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BIOL 100 Exam 4
2012-06-29 03:11:29
Muscle Neurotransmitters Drugs

CH 7, 8, 8a
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  1. Functions of Muscle (5)

    Heat Production - shivering

    Stability - posture & internal organs

    Communication - speech & facial expressions

    Control of Openings - going to the bathroom and talking
  2. Traits of Muscle
    Excitable - Respond to stimuli

    Contractile - Ability to shorten

    Extensible - Ability to stretch

    Elastic - Return to original length/form
  3. Responds to stimuli
  4. Ability to shorten
  5. Ability to stretch
  6. Return to original length/form
  7. Stationary attachment (point of attachment)
  8. movable attachment
  9. Muscles are arranged in ___ pairs
  10. In muscle arrangement, one cell extends from ___ to ___
    origin / insertion
  11. Bundle of fibers
  12. bundle of fasicles
  13. structure of muscle

    ___ - ___ - ___
    (1) fiber - fasicle - muscle
  14. Functional unit of contraction (movement)
  15. ___ gives muscle its striated (striped) appearance
  16. Sarcomere is made up of 2 proteins called ___ and ___
    Myosin - thicker

    Actin - thinner
  17. Myosin is the ___er protein and actin is the ___er protein
    thicker / thinner
  18. movement of one protein passed the other
    shortens sarcomere
    sliding filaments
  19. 1000s of sarcomeres sliding results in ___
  20. Sarcomere that is already activated; but NOT moving - just ready.
    Resting Sarcomere
  21. Events of Sarcomere Movement (4)

    A resting sarcomere will . . .
    1) Cross-Bridge Attachment

    2) Power Stroke

    3) Cross-Bridge Detachment

    4) Myosin Reactivation
  22. Movement of Sarcomere
    1) Cross-bridge Attachment (between ___ and ___)
    myosin + phosphate (ADP and Phosphate)
  23. Movement of a sarcomere
    2) Power stroke
    release ADP and Phosphate
  24. Movement of a sarcomere

    3) Bridge detachment
    ATP breaks the bond
  25. Movement of a sarcomere

    4) Reactivation
    Myosin, ADP, and Phosphate
  26. where a motor neuron attaches to muscle (plasma membrane)
    Neuromuscular Junction
  27. storage site that contains calcium - important for contraction
    Sarcoplasmic Reticulum
  28. Outline of events leading to movement of a sarcomere (4)
    1) Signal received from Acetylcholine

    2) Causes calcium ions to be realeased from sarcoplasmic reticulum 

    3) Calcium binds to troponin

    4) Tropomyosin moves

    "Resting Sarcomere"
  29. Excitation Contraction Coupling (8)
    1) Signal sent from Acetylcholine (nerve) 

    2) CA2+ Released from Sarcoplasmic Reticulum

    3) CA2+ binds to troponin

    4) Tropomyosin moves

    "Resting Sarcomere"

    5) Cross-Bridge

    6) Power Stroke

    7) Bridge Detachment

    8) Reactivation
  30. a nerve and all the muscle cells it stimulates to contract
    Motor Unit
  31. Contraction involves the recruitment of more and more ___ ___
    motor units
  32. Sources of energy
    1) Stored ATP

    2) Creatine Phosphate (in the form of ...)

    3) Anaerobic (by means of ...)

    4) Aerobic Respiration
  33. Energy During Exercise

    Stored ATP = ___ seconds
    5-6 seconds
  34. Energy During Exercise

    Creatine Phosphate = ___ seconds
    10 - 15 seconds
  35. Energy During Exercise

    (Glycolysis and Lactic Acid formentation)

    Anearobic Respiration = ___ seconds
    30 - 40 seconds
  36. Energy During Exercise

    (Citric Acid Cycle and ETC)

    Aerobic Respiration = ___ (time)
    duration of exercise
  37. Inability to contract is due to . . .
    limited O2 content in muscle

    limited ATP
  38. During muscle fatigue and Oxygen debt -

    Need to replenish . . .

  39. During muscle fatigue and Oxygen debt -

    Lactic acid converted to ___ for entrance to ___ ___ ___
    pyruvate / citric acid cycle
  40. 2 types of Muscle Cells
    Slow Twitch

    Fast Twitch
  41. Endurance fibers that store their own oxygen
    Slow Twitch
  42. muscle cells that contract more rapidly and break bonds between cross bridges faster

    - short fast bursts
    Fast Twitch
  43. exercise that builds muscle mass
    Resistance exercise
  44. Resistance exercise increases the size of muscle cells by increasing the number of ___
  45. exercise that improves muscle function
    aerobic exercise
  46. Aerobic exercise improves muscle function by increasing the number of ___
  47. Action Potential Summary (3)
    1) Rest

    2) Depolarization

    3) Repolarization
  48. Action Potential

    stage where cell is negative inside (-70)
  49. Action Potential

    Stage where cell becomes positive (+30)
  50. Action Potential

    Stage where the cell becomes negative again (more than when it started)
  51. Action Potential

    during rest, a cell is negative inside due to ___ and ___
    Na+/K+ pump

    very slow K+ leakage
  52. Action Potential

    during depolarization, cell becomes positive because ___
    Na+ rushes IN
  53. Action Potential

    during repolarization, cell becomes more negative than when it started due to ___
    K+ rushing OUT
  54. Integral membrane proteins
    Ion Channels
  55. act as "channels" to allow specific ions access to the cell membrane
    Ion Channels
  56. Resting Membrane Potential maintained by ___ and ____
    Na+/K+ pump 

    - pumps more  Na+ OUT than K+ goes IN  

    K+ leak channels

    - K+ leaks out     

  57.   Na+/K+ Pump

    (Sodium/Potassium Pump)
    Active Transporters

    Ion Channels

    Moves 3 Na+ OUT

    Moves 2 K+ IN
  58. Na+ side will be more positive because
    the Na+/K+ pump:

    Moves 3 Na+ OUT

    Moves 2 K+ IN
  59. Resting Membrane Potential creates an unequal distribution of ions due to the fact that the ___ concentration is higher on the INside and the ___ concentration is higher on the OUTside
    [K+] / [Na+]
  60. Action Potential: Depolarization (4 Events)
    Neuron reaches threshold

    Na+ channels open due to voltage

    Massive quantities of Na+ flow INTO cell

    Cell becomes more and more positive     
  61. Action Potential: Repolarization (4 Events)
    Returns cell to original resting value

    K+ channels open when cell gets to 30+ mV

    K+ rushes OUT of cell

    Cell becomes more negative again     
  62. Restoration of Resting Potential (Events)
    Na+/K+ pump corrects imbalance

    Returns Na+ to OUTside

    Returns K+ to INside   
  63. Events NEEDED for an Action Potential
    1) Active Transporter

    2) Unequal Ion Distribution

    3) Gated Channels   
  64. Active Transporter in an Action Potential
    Na+/K+ pump
  65. Unequal Ion Distribution

    - 2 different concentration gradients 
    [Na+] higher on one side and [K+] higher on the other side
  66. Gated Channels in an Action Potential

    - opened in response to ___ and ___ 
    charge and chemical binding
  67. Characteristics of an Action Potential (2)
    All - or - Nothing

    • an AP happens once a threshold is reached
    • Refractory Period
  68. Refractory Period
    Neurons can't fire during this time

    coincides with Na+ channel closing
  69. Chemical signals between neurons

    Released by exocytosis 
  70. Connection between a neuron and another cell
  71. "Sender" neuron
    Presynaptic Neuron
  72. "Receiver" Neuron
    Postsynaptic Neuron
  73. Synaptic Communication (Step 1)
    Nerve impulse reaches ending of presynaptic neuron
  74. Synaptic Communication (Step 2)
    Neurotransmitter is released
  75. Synaptic Communication (Step 3)
    Diffusion of the neurotransmitter across the synapse
  76. Synaptic Communication (step 4)
    Neurotransmitter binds to receptor on postsynaptic cell
  77. Synaptic Communication (Step 5)
    Ion channel opens in response to neurotransmitter binding
  78. Neurotransmitter Actions (2 types of synapses)
    Excitatory Synapse

    Inhibitory Synapse 
  79. causes an increase in activity of postsynaptic cell
    Excitatory Synapse
  80. causes decrease in activity of postsynaptic cell
    Inhibitory Synapse
  81. Neurotransmitter activity determined by the presence of ___ for that particular NT
  82. Neurotransmitters that effect mood


  83. A decrease in ___ is associated with depression
  84. Neurotransmitter associated with "good feelings"
  85. Neurotransmitter that helps control and/or coordinate movements
  86. Disease associated with:

    - Progressive memory loss due to a loss of cells in memory parts of the brain 

    - loss of acetylcholine producing cells due to clusters of proteins 
  87. Depression is associated with a loss of ___ producing cells
  88. Parkinson's is associated with a loss of ___ producing cells
  89. the central nervous system is made up of the ___ and the ___
    brain and spinal cord 

  90. The ___ is the CPU of the nervous system.  It integrates incoming information and decides what will happen
    the brain
  91. any nerves outside the CNS

    brings information to the CNS

    carries messages away from CNS
    Peripheral Nervous System
  92. carries signals 

    is excitable

    generates/transmits information
  93. Parts of a Neuron (3)
    cell body (soma): this is the big ball part. 

    the dendrites: this is the hair like part. 

    axons: this is the really long part that transmits the signal.
  94. the big ball part of a neuron
    soma (cell body)
  95. the hair like part of a neuron 
  96. the really long part of a neuron that transmits the signal
  97. supports the cells of the CNS

    provides a stable environment for the neurons

    stores glucose for the neurons
  98. the wrapping (around the axon) of cell membrane from: schwann cells in the PNS and oligodendrocytes in the CNS

    made from neuroglia cells
    serves as an insulator
    myelin sheath
  99. the spaces btween myelin sheaths, regions of unmyelinated axon (bare axon).

    provides sites for saltatory conduction - making the signal travel faster.
    nodes of ranvier
  100. motor neurons - carry info away from CNS, also called ___ neurons
  101. sensory neurons - conducts information towards the CNS, also called ___
  102. neurons found between motor and sensory neurons. 

    these integrate information.
  103. Functional Classifications of Nuerons


  104. part of the brain that is more complex

    2 Hemispheres

    Cortex (grey matter)

    White matter
  105. contains cell bodies of brain neurons
    the Cortex (grey matter)
  106. axons of neurons

    allows communication between neurons 
    white matter
  107. Parts of the Brain (6)



    Brain Stem


  108. Lobes



  109. Frontal Lobe responsible for
    Motor function


    motor speech areas
  110. Prietal Lobe responsible for
    sensory function
  111. Temporal Lobe responsible for
    Auditory function and Olfaction (smell)
  112. sense of smell (in temporal lobe)
  113. Occipital lobe responsible for
    visual cortex
  114. part of brain that is responsible for motor coordination

    determines where your muscles are in space

    coordinates sensory and motor (what you see and what you do)   
  115. Brain Stem is composed of ___ and ___
    medulla oblongata / pons
  116. contains reflex centers for respiration and heart rate
    medulla oblongata
  117. connects the 2 cerebellar hemispheres
  118. Parts of Cerebrum
    Sensory areas

    Motor areas

    Association areas   
  119. Primary somatosensory area

    found in Prietal lobes 
    Sensory areas of Cerebrum
  120. Primary motor area

    found in frontal lobes
    Motor areas of Cerebrum
  121. communication between sensory and motor areas

    found in ALL lobes
    Association area of Cerebrum
  122. All sensory info flows through the ___ to the brain

    "the relay center" for info going into the brain" 
  123. Part of brain that helps monitor the body to maintain homeostasis

    Acts as a thermostat for temperature regulation 
  124. The limbic system and reticular activating systems are ___ NOT anatomical
  125. "emotional" brain

    Limbic System
  126. 2 parts of limbic system responsible for memory

  127. relates emotion/memory to senses
  128. Filters sensory input (i.e. living nect to airport)

    Activating center 
    Reticular activating system
  129. Protection of Central Nervous System (4)
    Boney protection

    Mambranous protection

    Cerebrospinal Fluid

    Blood Brain Barrier     
  130. Boney protection of CSN (2)
    Skull and Vertebral Column
  131. Membranous protection of CSN
  132. 3 layers of Meninges
    Dura (outtermost)

    Arachnoid (webby)

    Pia (innermost)   
  133. fluid found between Arachnoid and Pia matter
    Cerebrospinal fluid
  134. Functions of Cerebrospinal fluid
    shock absorption

    support weight of brain

  135. selective barrier for things Entering the brain

    tight junctions between cells of capillaries 
    Blood Brain Barrier
  136. encased in vertebral column

    transmits messages to and from brain

    serves as a reflex center   
    Spinal Cord
  137. Spinal Cord Anatomy (4)

    White matter (on the OUTside)

    Grey Matter (on the INside)

    Central Canal     
  138. Components of Reflex Arc (5)

    Sensory Neuron

    Integration Center

    Motor Neuron

  139. Periferal Nervous System (2 sub-systems)
    Somatic NS and Autonomic NS
  140. Nervous System that interprets data from outside

    Allows for concious control of muscle 
    Somatic NS
  141. Automatic control system (innervates internal organs)
    Autonomic Nervous System
  142. 2 sub-divisions of the Autonomic Nervous System
    Sympathetic NS and Parasympathetic NS
  143. Fight or Flight

    All effects at once

    Acts via Adrenaline (epinephrine)   

    Increases heart rate, skeletal muscle contraction, respiration rate 
    Sympathetic Nervous System
  144. Rest - n Digest

    Individual organ response NOT all at once

    Dilates blood vessels to digestive tract
    Parasympathetic Nervous System
  145. N
  146. Neurotransmitter action stopped by  (3)
    Re-uptake interruption

    Enzymatic Breakdown

    Diffusion from synapse 
  147. Drugs that Change mood
    Psychoactive Drug
  148. Psychoactive drugs effect Neurotransmitters in 5 different ways (sometimes more than 1)
    Release NT's

    Inhibit NT's

    Act like NT

    Prevent NT action

    Delay NT removal from synapse
  149. drug that actually binds where a NT normally would and does the same thing
  150. Drug that prevents NT action
  151. Example of a drug that releases NT's
    Black Widow Spider Venom. Fen Fen
  152. Drug that inhibits the release of NT's (i.e.)
  153. i.e. of an Agonist drug

    - Used for Parkinson's and Restless Leg Disorder

    - Used for migranes
    Requip / Maxalt
  154. i.e. Antaognistic drug
  155. i.e. drug that delays NT removal from synapse

    - ___ and ___ can be used for depression; ___ can be used for Alzheimer
    Prozac and paxil / Aricept
  156. Physiological changes in response to drugs
    Increases enzymatic production

    Decreases neuron's response to drug

    Requires more drug to get equal effects

    Person's own NT no longer able to produce appropriate response     
  157. Person's own NT no longer able to produce appropriate response     
  158. drug in all consumable alcohol
  159. Ethanol formed by ___
  160. amount of grams of alcohol per 100mL of blood
    Blood Alcohol
  161. Alcohol's effect on the body determined by several factors

    Rate at which it's absorbed
    Higher concentration = faster

    Food = slower

    Carbonation = faster    

  162. Getting rid of alcohol -

    Metabolized in ___ and ___
    In liver (1/3 oz/ hour)

      and stomach - alcohol dehydrogenase (enzyme)
  163. breaks down alcohol into
  164. breaks down alcohol into acetaldehyde and then into acetate
    alcohol dehydrogenase (enzyme)
  165. Depresses activity in NS

    Prevents fat metabolization in Liver - accumulation of fat in Liver Cells - that eventually swell and burst   

    Weakens heart and damages blood vessels 
  166. Active ingredient is THC

    Binds to anandamide receptors and acts like a NT

    Smoke contains Carcinogens and has 3x more tar than cigarette smoke

    can lead to Paranoia  

    Increases heart rate and blood pressure
  167. Brain's natural THC
  168. Increases Dopamine (acts in pleasure cells of brain)

    Increases Norepinephrine (fight-or-flight response)

    Constricts arteries to heart muscle - Heart Attack

    Interferes w/ NS innervation - Irregular Heart Beat

    Can cause respiratory Failure    
  169. Increases Dopamine - increases Realease

    Increases Norepinepherine - Increases Release

    High Blood Pressure - Heart Attack

    Anxiety, Paranoia, Psychosis, Stroke - Brain Damage
  170. Blood flow to Heart stops - leads to ___
    Heart Attack
  171. Blood flow to Brain stops - leads to ___
  172. Increases Dopamine and Norepinephrine - interferes with ReUptake by neurons

    MDPV - mephedrone

    "Bath Salts" 
  173. Acts like the NT, Acetylcholine

    PNS - Increases HR and BP 

    CNS - Acetylcholine receptor activation leads to release of Serotonin and Dopamine

    Clot Formation leads to HA and Stroke

  174. Binds to the same place nicotine does

    acts as a NT - not as bad as nicotine 
  175. Binds serotonin receptors

    Promotes Serotonin and Dopamine release

    Transporter is REVERSED - tons of serotonin pumped

    Destruction of Dopamine and Serotonin releasing neurons

    Chronic depression, anxiety, and insomnia